Sacred Kingship

“In my lineage there is the majesty of kings, who excel in power among men, and the sacredness of the gods, who have the power of kings in their hands”.

-Julius Caesar

After the conclusion of the last glaciation (about 12.000 years ago) our ancestors gradually became sedentary and formed throughout Europe tribal societies based on the concept of blood and soil.

All these archaic societies were ruled by a Sacred King – a living symbol of the Sky, of the Sun and of the metaphysical principle defined with the term Being – and a Sacred Queen – a living symbol of the Earth, of the Moon and of the metaphysical principle defined with the term Becoming. Related examples can be found, at the level of folklore, in the traditional European fairy tales and celebrations where a sleeping maiden is awakened by the kiss of a prince, an act that symbolizes the awakening of Nature in Spring, when the rays of the Sun kisses and fecundate the Earth.

Sleeping Beauty:

Sacred King and Sacred Queen together represented a complementary duality, and during their symbolic wedding occurred the sacred union between the Sky God/Sun God and the Earth Goddess/Moon Goddess, i.e. the metaphysical conjunction of the opposites.


The Sacred King was especially associated with the Sun and consequently he embodied the power of the celestial body that illuminates the world and gives life: an example of such an archetypal figure can be found in the Arthurian Cycle, where the strenght of the knight Gawain continues to increase from dawn to noon, to then gradually decrease until sunset: just like the strenght of the Sun in its various phases.


That’s the reason why in the archaic societies was customary the prohibition to look the Sacred King in the face, in the same way as it isn’t possible to stare at the Sun without risking of becoming blind, and in his presence all had to kneel and stare at the ground.

The fact that the very existence of the Sacred King was identified with the annual path of the Sun in the Sky explains why he was subject to a ritual killing at the end of his annual function, on the day of the Winter Solstice, when the Sun dies and is reborn at the same time: only then his successor, previously selected, was crowned, raised to royal dignity and celebrated.


Examples of ritual death of the Sacred King can be found in the myths about Achilles and Krishna: they both die after having been hit at the heel by an arrow (poisoned in the actual ritual), in their only vulnerable spot, the tendon of the foot, part of the body that has the same symbolic meaning of the femur, because the tendons allow the muscular movement of the body, i.e. they allow life. The death of Achilles and Krishna is concretely and symbolically associated with a part of the human body that was synonymous of life (but they will come back to life when their femur will be recovered by a divine child that will enter in their grave).


Over the course of time every archaic society altered, for various reasons, the conclusion of the Sacred King’s annual function, and the ancestral tradition manifested itself in new forms. In some cases the Sacred King staged an apparent death, isolating himself in a symbolic grave, while a substitute obtained his divine role during that last day of reign, to then be ritually killed: at that point the real Sacred King returned to life from his symbolic grave; in other cases a totemic animal took the place of the Sacred King on the sacrificial altar; in other cases was torn down a wood effigy that represented the Sacred King; in these three scenarios the Sacred King in charge could confirm his role or give it up in the course of a selective competition. Eventually the Sacred King simply refused to be killed or replaced, and thanks to his authority, his power and the support of his faithful, managed to extend his divine mandate indefinitely, until his death, whether natural or not, and this particular deviation from the original procedure influenced and molded considerably the institution of kingship during Antiquity and the Middle Ages.


In the most archaic societies both the Sacred King and the Sacred Queen were annually selected (a tradition whose vestiges could still be found at the times of the Roman Republic, when two Consuls were elected together each year): these divine roles were assigned to those who proved to be superior in various annual competitions able to determine the strenght, beauty, health, wisdom, skills and, generally speaking, the male and female qualities and peculiarities of the candidates. In this context we can remember the Ancient Olympic Games, that consisted originally in religious ceremonies (over time degenerated into simple sport events without any higher meaning) having the purpose to annually select – through a footrace between young women – the one who would symbolically incarnate Hera (the Earth Goddess, i.e. the Sacred Queen) and – through a footrace between young men – the one who would symbolically incarnate Zeus (the Sky God, i.e. the Sacred King): every year the Sacred Queen and the Sacred King had to confirm their role or pass the baton to those who proved to be more worthy.


Things changed with the subsequent distinction in matriarchal and patriarchal societies:

In the matriarchal societies the first daughter of the Queen was a Princess who inherited the title at birth, while her future groom (and future King, after spending some time as a Prince) was selected among men from other tribes or lands; in these societies the most ambitious sons of the King and the Queen will go to other lands in order to marry a Princess or a Queen and become themselves Kings (a recurring pattern in myths [some examples: the chariot race between Pelops and Oenomaus to win the hand of Hippodamia and the archery competition between Odysseus and the Proci to win the hand of Penelope] and fairy tales).

Odysseus during the archery competition against the Proci:

In the patriarchal socities the first son of the King was a Prince who inherited the title at birth, while his future bride (and future Queen, after spending some time as a Princess) was chosen/selected among young girls from other tribes or lands (a recurring pattern in myths [an example: the judgement of Paris to decide which goddess was the most beautiful between Aphrodite, Hera and Athena] and fairy tales).

The Judgement of Paris:

In these societies the King and the Queen will try to marry their daughters with Princes or Kings from other tribes or lands, in order to tie them to a royal bloodline but often also to stipulate alliances or to obtain advantages of other sort.

“The King is dead, long live the King!”


About Zeus and Typhon

Varg Vikernes has made a video where he talks about the femur (for our ancestors a symbol of movement and thus of the life force) in relation to the prehistoric burial mounds and the initiatory ritual of rebirth that took place inside them. In this article I will try to unveil the symbolic relation between these archaeological finds and the myth of the battle between Zeus and Typhon.


Typhon was a monstrous creature described in different ways by the various ancient sources, but generally speaking he was a gigantic winged monster with an at least partially serpentine shape.


Without venturing into what would be a complicated analysis, I can simplify by saying that for me Typhon is a symbolic incarnation of Death. In the mythical tale Zeus figths with Typhon and tries to kill him, but the monster manages to sever the tendons of Zeus’s hands and feet, therefore immobilizing the god. The key in this context is to understand that the tendons fulfill the same symbolic function of the femur in relation to the ability to move and to the life force of an individual: the tendons perform in the myth the same role that the femur performs in the ritual. Zeus is immobilized, alive but at the same time symbolically dead, awaiting his rebirth (i.e. awaiting to regain the ability to move), exactly like the divine ancestor inside the burial mound.

It will not surprise the fact that at that point Typhon will bring Zeus inside a cave (i.e. the burial mound), where he will hide the tendons of the god inside a bear’s skin (an extremely archaic symbolism that comes directly from the primordial Bear Cult practiced by the Neanderthals long before the end of the last Ice Age). The cave (i.e. the womb of the earth) is the Korykion Antron (from korykos, “knapsack”) and is protected by the dragoness Delphyne (from delphys, “womb”).

The Korykion Antron:

The korykos (“knapsack”):

But finally Hermes (the Greek word hermaion defined both a fortunate man and a pile of stones [perhaps originally in reference to the dolmens, i.e. the burial mounds?]) manages to break into che cave (he is a psychopomp god with the privilege of being able to access and return freely from the realm of death) and to recover the precious tendons: in this way Zeus regains the ability to move (i.e. he returns to life after an apparent and symbolic death) and defeats Typhon (i.e. Death) once and for all; the divine child (i.e. Hermes/Odin) has found the femur of his ancestor inside the mound, and by means of an initiatory ritual has reached a superior and transcendent spiritual stage: he remembers and is aware of his previous existences and consciences, which now are, at the same time, distinct and unified realities in the shape of this reborn divine being.

Related post: He who makes the Sky tremble

Some Cases of Burial Mounds (Part 2 of 3)

After being imprisoned in the cave of Polyphemus, Odysseus states that his name is “Nobody”: this or because the children that faced the initiation/rebirth ritual didn’t had a real, defined identity, didn’t had a real name and were not yet seen as true human beings, or because his previous self/identity was dead after the entry in the burial mound (Polyphemus’s cave); or for both reasons. The wine offering to the Cyclops – with the intention to soothe him, calm him down – can be compared both with the mistletoe given to the priestess inside the mound and the honey brought to the she-bear in its cave, all having a similar function.

Some of the companions of Odysseus are killed by Polyphemus while others managed to escape from the cave: those who survived are the embryos that the she-bear decided to develop and give birth to, i.e. the children who have passed the initiation. After the escape from the cave Odysseus feels the need to affirm and make known to the Cyclops his true identity and name, that is the new identity that he has obtained after the initiation ritual, reborn in one of his honourable ancestors: he is no longer “Nobody” but Odysseus son of Laertes.



One of the various tales about the birth of Zeus tells that he was brought up by Melissa (“bee”) and Amalthea, inside a cave. Amalthea had hung the cradle of Zeus (in a way, the clothes [in this case life-force] of an infant are his cradle) up a tree (the sacrificial tree) so that it was neither in heaven, nor on earth, nor in the sea (that is among the dead, as the child inside the burial mound).

With time the sorceress/priestess took the place of the she-bear inside the cave/burial mound, however the child continued to have the task of bringing honey as a gift and this is the reason why the child who faced the initiation was seen as a bee: that’s why the sorceress/priestess inside the burial mound was also considered a bee, and it makes sense when we know that according to another tale the suckler of Zeus were sacred bees. The Homeric Hymn to Apollo describes the three prophetess that teached the art of divination to Apollo as if they were bees and the Pythia – the priestess of the Temple of Apollo at Delphi – was called “Delphic Bee”.

Maybe (I make a guess) our ancestors identified the sorceress/priestess as a bee because they no longer understood or remembered the symbolism/role of the she-bear (the child brought honey to the she-bear to feed her and be chosen, being symbolically one of her embryos: as such he also had to eat some of that honey, similarly to the embryos that are nourished by what the she-bear eats; he is like a fetus inside the womb/cave/burial mound and he must be reborn): at that point, who else could have been the recipient of that sweet gift if not adult bees? And if this was the case, maybe they saw the burial mound as a sort of symbolic beehive where the child/bee had to go with his honey?  Melissa (“bee”) nourished Zeus with honey, that is the same honey that the child who faced the initiation brought as a gift to her.

Cave of Zeus, Mount Ida (Crete):

Part 1: Some Cases of Burial Mounds (Part 1 of 3)
Part 3: Some Cases of Burial Mounds (Part 3 of 3)

He who makes the Sky tremble

Let’s examine a bit Typhon and the Hekatonkheires, characters of the Greek mythology.

The Hekatonkheires may represent the lightning; they are Briareos (“strong”), Kottos (“he who strikes”) and Gyges (“that has many limbs”): lightnings are strong, they strike (the ground and trees) and have many limbs/branches/discharges. The Hekatonkheires are described as having hundred arms and fifty heads that spit fire. I think that the numerous arms and heads can be a reference to the countless branches/discharges of which is composed a lightning. They spit fire because indeed a lightning “spits” fire the moment when it strikes a tree.


Typhon, according to Hesiod, fathered the stormy winds and ancient sources associate his name to the Greek term “tuphon/tuphos”, that translates as “whirlwind”. So Typhon symbolizes the whirlwind (and the strong storms) and this would give sense to the fact that “with his hands he was able to catch the stars and with his legs was able to cross the Aegean Sea with four steps”.

However the description of Typhon also suggests a similarity with the lightning: “he had immeasurable limbs…with his hands he was able to catch the stars…in his shoulders he had hundred snakes that instead of hiss sometimes barked as dogs, sometimes roared as lions…each of the legs was formed by two twisted dragons…from his eyes protruded tongues of fire”. It seems plausible that the “snakes” may be the discharges of the lightning while the barks and roars can refer to the thunder, the sound of lightning. It would make sense, because storms (or better, thunderstorms…) often bring with them lightnings and thunders.

In the context of lightning, Typhon can be compared to Loki (which name means “lightning”): they both have a monstrous and particular offspring. Typhon has generated the Chimera, the Hydra, the Sphynx, Cerberus and others while Loki has generated Fenrir, Hel, Sleipnir and the Miðgarðsormr. Loki is often followed by Thor and Typhon is defeated by Zeus.

In any case the battle between Typhon and Zeus (the Sky God) can at least be seen as a symbolical contrapposition between the Whirlwind (or strong storm) and the Sky, after which, thanks to the victory of Zeus, peace and serenity returns in the firmament!