Le Besoin d’Impossible

The first book published by Marie Cachet, Le Besoin d’Impossible, is a multiform work in its implications, but despite this it can be defined as a whole as a purely philosophical work. In this article I will not write a typical review, I plan instead to outline and expose the issues that have mostly caught my attention during the study of the book (yes, it requires to be studied and not merely read…).

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Let’s start from an assumption that, although discussed and deepened by the author in another context, is essential for a thorough understanding of the work that concerns us now: the modern European man – biologically speaking – is a slightly hybridized Neanderthal man (actually, every modern human being is a more or less hybridized creature, but since I am a European I will refer, when necessary, only to the European species). However, what does this have to do with questions of philosophical nature? According to Marie Cachet one of the consequences of this hybridization, even after its stabilization, was the birth of a metaphysical vertigo/despair, a disharmony of the mind (here is to be found, perhaps, the cause of the birth of consciousness?) that manifested itself simultaneously with the dramatic transition to a temporal (and thus finite) perception of the Universe. A real “fall” that took us far from the possibility of fathom and living the concepts of eternity (intended as the atemporal point that we call instant) and infinity (intended as spatial infinity).

At that point, however, our ancestors (as well as us today) tried instinctively, unconsciously and obsessively to compensate this metaphysical despair without being overwhelmed by the “terror of time”: an explosion of human dynamism, individual and collective, led progressively to the birth and development of civilizations, arts, sciences, spiritualities, religions and philosophies, all attempts to recreate the lost harmony of the mind and extend one’s personality beyond the boundaries of the biological duration of the existence, in an attempt to forge a sort of simulated eternity (the need for the impossible, as suggested by the title of the book).

Examples of materialization of the collective genetic memory of a people, in an attempt to be remembered in time:
partenoneinterno-pantheon-roma

Examples of materialization of the genetic memory of an individual, the sculptor, in an attempt to be remembered in time:
cellinidiana-statue_hermsdorf_lohsa_2

Therefore, according to Marie Cachet, every external creation as well as all forms of teaching are the manifestation of a deep necessity of the human beings, namely the selfish need to go beyond the yoke of time, beyond the finitude, so as to preserve themselves in time, through other people, symbolic containers of our self, potential reincarnations of our self. Artistic creations and teachings are therefore a means to conquer eternity and defeat the illusion of a finite time. We project our self in the future, through a real or imaginary reincarnation (I refer you to the prehistoric ritual of reincarnation described in detail by Madame Cachet in another context), which in turn will transmit in the future the essence of our self, in an eventual endless chain.

padre-e-figlio-tramonto

An essential distinction that emerges during the reading is that between the individuals conscious of their metaphysical despair (active and subjective individuals) and the vast majority of those who are not aware of it (passive and objective individuals), which unconsciously suffer the consequences of this disharmony. The religions (especially the organized religions) and the spiritualities that give us dogmatic and established metaphysical responses, the daily repetitiveness, the social conventions and all the entertainment we create in our societies are, although we do not realise it, tools that distract us and allow us to flee from the metaphysical anguish inherent in us, from the sacred terror that we experience in front of the mystery of the universe and of life. Only by getting rid of all this – especially of what provides us metaphysical answers – and through boredom, certain men will fall into the metaphysical despair and will find their authentic self (through the manifestation of the memories of our previous lives, memories engraved and latent in our blood), their true essence, undergoing a sort of “awakening”: achieved this superior spiritual and mental state, a deep impulse will force them to find their subjective responses to the fundamental dilemmas of the world and of life.

What about you? You dare to face the metaphysical abyss?

universoosservabile-630x360

***

As I have previously explained, these are just some of the issues discussed in this book (a unique work of its kind), the ones that most involved me: ultimately, I urge you to read it and give shape to your personal opinion.

 

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The Universe in Flames

Giordano Bruno was an Italian philosopher, burned at the stake in 1600 after being declared guilty of heresy by the Roman Inquisition, in consequence to his criticism of Christianity and to the cosmological conclusions he had reached during his search for truth through philosophy. Bruno considered Christianity as a degenerative process that reached its culmination during the Counter-Reformation, however, what actually interests me is his cosmology, because it makes sense: I will describe it briefly.

According to Bruno the Universe is eternal (indeed, in order for something to have a beginning there must already be a space in which such a beginning can manifest itself) and infinitely extended (if instead it was spatially finite, in what would be contained? Keep in mind that all that is spatially finite must inevitably be contained in a larger space), whereby motionless and without a center. It is a unitary and vast living organism, animated and endowed with intellect, a homogeneous and indivisible whole governed by the interdependence of all its parts, which are in relation to the organism in its unity (i.e. an organism made up of organisms), unity that coincides with the concept of divinity: consequently the divine resides in the multiplicity that exists in the Universe, in every part of nature and, therefore, also in ourselves. For Bruno everything is matter, i.e. life, and the Universe consists in infinite matter that changes perennially, able to transform itself continuously in an incessant becoming, passing from one extreme to the other, from an opposite to the other. The universal matter is infinite energy provided with intellect, unity in which lies a multiplicity, multiplicity in which lies a unity!

“Perhaps you pronounce this sentence against me with greater fear than I receive it”.

-Giordano Bruno

giordano_bruno_ritratto2

Related posts: Eternal Regret (Part 1 of 2), The Harmony of OppositesEternal Regret (Part 2 of 2)Words of Wisdom #51

Marcus Aurelius: about Destiny, Time and the Cyclicality and Metamorphosis of the Universal Nature

“Love only what happens to you and that is woven in the great plot of life: there is nothing that suits you best”.

-Marcus Aurelius

“Whatever happens to you was predisposed for you since the time of times, and an impenetrable intertwinement of causes, starting from then, has bound your life to that particular event”.

-Marcus Aurelius

“Don’t live as if you had still thousands of years ahead of you: it chases you, fast, destiny. As long as you live, as long as you can, become virtuous”.

-Marcus Aurelius

***

“Many are the superfluous and annoying things that you can eliminate, because they exist only in the opinion that you create about them: so as to be able to give a wider space to your mind, to embrace with the thought the entire universe, to reflect on infinity and eternity, to verify how rapid is the transformation of every single thing, how short is the time that flows from birth to death and what infinite abyss is that which precedes birth and that which follows death”.

-Marcus Aurelius

“All the things you see will soon be transformed by the universal nature, that from their substance will give birth to other ones, which in turn will transform into still other ones and so on, and this in order for the universe to remain forever young”.

-Marcus Aurelius

Observe the course of the stars and participate of their movement, then think intensely about the continuous and mutual change of the elements: you will feel purified by the filth of earthly life”.

-Marcus Aurelius

marco_aurelio

About Destiny: Words of Wisdom #12
About Time: Eternal Regret (Part 1 of 2), Eternal Regret (Part 2 of 2)
Quotes by Marcus Aurelius (and Epictetus) about Stoicism: About Stoicism

Eternal Regret (Part 2 of 2)

“What is eternal is circular, what is circular is eternal”.

-Aristotle

aristoteles_1

The traditional European vision of life and of time is circular, without a beginning and without an end: a circle that completes its course eternally. An example in support of this: for the ancient Romans the particle “an” meant “circum” (“around”) and from “an” derive the Latin “annus” (“year”), with the meaning of circle, and “annulus” (“ring”), symbol of eternity both for its circularity and the metal to which it is identified, i.e. gold. The year was therefore seen as a circle without beginning and end, not as a finite line, and represented a temporal cycle destined to repeat itself without end.

The Sun, the Moon, the Seasons, the Ice Ages and even the Civilizations: their manifestations are marked by cyclical rhythms. Also men and animals, thanks to their offspring, fall into this universal cyclicity. Everything that in the Universe is animated moves in circular and eternal cycles, this being also the meaning of the swastica/hooked cross (the “wheel of time”) in all its forms and depictions: the four branches symbolize the eternal cyclicity and rebirth of all the powers in the Universe.

p4frwam

-Winter, Spring, Summer, Autumn and again Winter.
-Nighttime, Morning, Daytime, Evening and again Nighttime.
-New Moon, Rising Moon, Full Moon, Waning Moon and again New Moon.
-Spiritual Life, Rebirth, Life, Death and again Spiritual Life.

“The archaic time is the universe, and as the universe it is circular and definite. Classical antiquity didn’t believe in progress, but in the eternal returns”.

-Giorgio De Santillana

“The conception of time of our ancestors was very different from the modern one, linear and monotonous. They had done of time a structure, a cyclical time, where past and future called each other”.

-Giorgio De Santillana

santillana

Philosophers like Plato and Aristotle saw this as the state of Becoming (state to which belong our body and identifiable with the moon and the four arms/branches of the swastica), characterized by mobility, mutability, temporality and multiplicity. Its inevitable opposite is the state of Being (state to which belong our spirit and identifiable with the sun and the central point of the swastica), characterized by immobility, immutability, eternity and indivisibility. According to them the Becoming is the opposite and reflection of the Being and vice versa, whereby one can not exist without the other, they are two faces of the same reality, just like the waves and the sea are a single water: there are no waves without sea, and there is no sea without waves. The waves are simply sea but despite this live their existence as waves, likewise we are simply part of a single living organism (the Universe) but despite this we live our existence as human beings. The Being is the One (indefinable, because each definition includes an opposite/contrary and is therefore included in the context of multiplicity) of Plato and the Unmoved Mover (“that which moves without being moved”, a concept equivalent to the wei wu wei [“action without action”] of Taoism and to the axis mundi [the motionless center around which revolves the Earth, exactly like, on a bigger scale, the motionless Sun that by means of its gravitational attraction forces the planets of the Solar System to accomplish their motions of revolution around it]) of Aristotle.

Center/Being and Circumference/Becoming:
pita2

Note: the ancient sacred groves (like the Roman lucus and the Celtic nemeton), at whose center there was a circular clearing that allowed the Sun’s rays to penetrate, were a physical image of the metaphysical principles of the center and the circumference

Listening not to me, but to the lógos, it is wise to agree that all things are one“.

-Heraclitus

“And from all things the one and from the one all things”.

-Heraclitus

hendrik_ter_brugghen_-_heraclitus

Two faces of the same coin but what was the real meaning of those concepts? Maybe they saw the Universe as container and content, as matrix of all that exists and all that exists? Space and Matter being synonyms, the exact same thing, two names for the same reality, each existing as far as the other exists? But in this case it would not really exist only the state of Becoming, independent and unbegotten? Or, on the other hand, exists only the state of Being, past and future (i.e. the Becoming) being nothing but illusory representations of the mind, the present instant being the only true reality?

As Plato understood: time/becoming is the moving image of eternity/being. This seems to be the answer.

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The Neanderthal man (i.e. the Proto-European) was originally able to fathom and deeply understand eternity and infinity, because he lived only the instant, the true present, elusive for us today. In his perspective “past” and “future” don’t exist, both being born from the finite perspective in which today we found ourselves involved. If you think well about it, past and future really don’t exist, except in our minds as a consequence of the fact that we are trapped in a linear and finite time. The concept of “past” (i.e. imaginary replica/representation) exists but not the past in itself, the concept of “future” (i.e. future projection) exists but not the future in itself: only the “present” exists, the eternal and immutable instant.

However, we can discuss about these concepts but we can’t really understand and grasp their essence: we are stuck with a past, an elusive present and a future as we all intend them (i.e. time and history, because history as we intend it started together with the birth of time, with our transition/fall into a temporal perspective). We are able to briefly experience eternity, I think, only when we remain enthralled by what I would define as platonic ideas. Plato’s ideas are realities having a metaphysical, immutable, eternal, outside of time and archetypical existence (therefore the deities fall into this category when are interpreted as archetypes, role models, stages of life, ideals, etc.), in opposition to the realities having a material, mutable, transient and within time existence: it is in these latter that the ideas manifest themselves. The platonic ideas as ideas in themselves, separated from the beings and vectors in which they manifest, are described in this ancient Chinese text: “Wanting to prove, starting from the idea [in itself] that the ideas [in things] are not at all ideas [in itself], is worth less than wanting to prove starting from the non-idea that the ideas [in themselves] are not the idea [in itself]. Wanting to prove starting from the horse [in general] that [a white] horse is not [a] horse [in general] is worth less than wanting to prove starting from the non-horse that [a white] horse is not [a] horse [in general]”.

plato

If you’ve ever been in a temporary condition of astonishment, enchantment, metaphysical joy and serenity, characterized by the sensation of being outside of time, followed by a sort of awakening that leaves you with a particular melancholy and the regret for having lost that condition, then you have probably experienced a platonic idea, a particular astonishment due to a metaphysical intuition (“metaphysics” means “the science [i.e. knowledge] of what goes beyond the physical”, in philosophy “the meaning and ultimate principle of the ideas”). It’s something that happens briefly and quite unconsciously, without really realizing it, often while looking intensely at something or someone. I’m not able to explain it in a better way!

Part 1: Eternal Regret (Part 1 of 2)

The Harmony of Opposites

Heraclitus was an enigmatic Greek philosopher, defined because of this as “the obscure”. During his last years of life he became a hermit of the mountains, being an aristocratic spirit that disdained the multitudes: not bad for one who lived in Ancient Greece! He should have seen the world as it is today…

manifestazione_parigi_terrorismo_alto_1_place_de_la_republique_ansa

Anyway, one thing that is clear from the fragments at our disposal is his doctrine concerning the harmony of opposites:

“The opposites concordant, and from the discordant comes beautiful harmony, and everything happens according to contention”.

“The same thing are the living and the dead, the awake and the sleeping, the young and the old: these indeed changing are those and those again changing are these”.

“What is cold becomes hot, what is hot becomes cold, what is moist becomes dry, what is dry becomes moist”.

“Immortal mortals, mortal immortals, living their death and dying their life”.

“One and the same is the path that goes upward and the path that goes downward”.

“The same are in fact the beginning and the end in the circumference of the circle”.

“God is day-night, winter-summer, war-peace, satiety-hunger”.

“Junctions are entire-not entire, concordant-discordant, harmonic-disharmonic, and from all things the one and from the one all things”.

Listening not to me, but to the lógos, it is wise to agree that all things are one“.

Heraclitus understood that the Law of the Universe, the Logos (intended as “relation” or “connection”, in reference to the infinite series of relations/connections generated by Nature and operating in it, through the mediation of opposites that alternate), is the relation of contraposition, complementarity, interdependency and alternation between two opposite concepts (being-becoming, one-many, eternity-time, infinite-finite, life-death, past-future, inhalation-exhalation, peace-war, hot-cold, etc.) that are apparently in constant conflict with each other, but in reality, at the same time, need each other because everything originates from its opposite: the opposites can indeed be defined only for opposition, and they can never be independently determined; nothing would exist if there was not, at the same time, also its opposite.

Note: here lies the meaning of the figure of the Androgynous (from Greek androgynos, composed by andros, “man”, and gyne, “woman”), the complete and undivided being best known for its description made by Plato in the Symposium. The symbolism inherent in this figure refers to the coexistence of opposites and their interdependence, the underlying unity hidden by their apparent separation and opposition: in biological terms it refers to the restoration of the absolute and primordial unity of the being. The coincidentia oppositorum (a Latin phrase meaning “coincidence of opposites”) is the state of being in which the opposites coincide: for example, at the climax of sexual love occurs a coincidence between man and woman, a momentary emersion of the androgynous state of being, the erotic impulse having its deepest meaning in the reintegration and reunification of the two divided parts of the human being; this biological coincidence, in specific cases and conditions, allows to momentarily experience a purely spiritual and trascendent state, what in philosophy would consist in the culmination of the metaphysical speculation, namely the inner realization of the coincidence between the concepts of Being and Becoming (that are therefore two ways of appearing of a single reality), union that results in a single principle, a metaphisical reality that is beyond the opposition between contraries, that in it instead coincide: the Universal Reality.

androgino

If there was no night, what would give us the opportunity to define day as such? If there was no winter, what would give us the opportunity to define summer as such? If there was no war, what would give us the opportunity to define peace as such? If there was no death, what would give us the opportunity to define life as such? The same on the contrary and for all the opposites that exist, they are two faces of the same coin, bound in the same way as an uphill path seems a downhill path if seen from above.

winter-summer

As it’s evident from the fragments cited above, Heraclitus thought that everything is destined to pass eternally from one state of the being to another: what is cold and becomes hot will cool, what is slow and becomes fast will slow down, what is alive and dies will return to life. I’m alive (again) because I died, and I am destined to die (again) and then to return to life (again), in the same way as I’m awake (again) because I fell asleep, only to be destined to fell asleep (again) and then return to be awake (again). The end of the circle coincides exactly with its beginning. There is no immobility, only an eternal and unceasing metamorphosis, a current with no beginning and no end, a constant change and transformation: panta rei (“everything flows”). As Heraclitus said: “No man ever steps in the same river twice, for it’s not the same river (in its perennial flow) and he’s not the same man (in his perennial becoming)“.

We can affirm that Heraclitus believed in the immortality and eternal rebirth of the individual spirit: if it is possible to be reborn then it is necessary that the spirit exists (from what we would return to life if not from it that is eternal and immortal, while the body is temporary and mortal?) and that it doesn’t disappear after death, but that instead it continues to exist even outside the body.

Anyway, we need both the opposites and there will always be both: their result is harmony and equilibrium: after peace will come war but at a certain point there will be peace again, after summer will come winter but at a certain point there will be summer again, etc. In this flux Heraclitus saw the Logos, the Universal Law of Nature!

hendrik_ter_brugghen_-_heraclitus

Eternal Regret (Part 1 of 2)

“Lives eternal he one who lives in the present”.

-Ludwig Wittgenstein

ludwig_wittgenstein_1910

Eternity (the term derives from the Latin locution “ex” (outside) and from “ternum” (triple/triad), i.e. “outside the triad [of time]”: past, present and future) consists on one side in a perpetual flow of time, without beginning and without end, on the other in the atemporal point that we call instant (the Parmenidean being is nothing else than the instant), that is outside of time and coincides with the real present, of which we can’t have experience; an instant proceeds without interruption to another instant, they add up over time but they remain elusive for us; it is we who are in motion while the instant is immutable, even if it seems to shift, as the apparent motion of the Sun; the elusive and uninterrupted flow of instants constitutes the course of time, which is an illusion, since there is nothing but the endless eternity, whereby:

“Time is the moving image of eternity”.

– Plato

platone-busto

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Once, we fathomed eternity: both as infinite temporal duration and as timelessness. Too much time has passed since we have only been able to speculate about it, only able to see the door of eternity from a more or less favorable position, with the silly illusion of being able to reach its handle. The same applies to the concept of infinity, we are no longer able to deeply understand and fathom the infinity of the Universe. Only a finite space is within the reach of our minds.

It’s exactly here that lies the meaning of what Mircea Eliade called “nostalgia for paradise”, being nothing but the nostalgia for the Golden Age (i.e. the primordial state in which we fathomed eternity, since gold is a symbol of the metaphysical concept of the “being”, which is not subject to the laws of the temporal becoming), the aspiration to regain an existence outside of time, as when men were unaware of it and, consequently, free from the terror and anguish of history. Here lies one of the deeper meanings of all religions, one of their most important functions (achieved through initiations, rituals, ceremonies and festivities) being that of creating the momentary illusion that we are living once again that lost primordial condition to which we can not help but aspire, as a heartbreaking necessity that, if not satisfied, leads us to despair.

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If every now and then you find yourselves immersed in similar thoughts, then maybe you will suffer, consequently, a sort of metaphysical vertigo/desperation: it’s the only way you have to find the answers you need, the only way to reawaken yourselves!

Eternal and Infinite, this is the Universe!

stelle

Sumerian Mists (Part 3 of 3)

Firstly, an image that shows the Cosmos according to the Sumerian mythology:

cosmologia_sumera

There is written, from top to bottom:

Primordial Sea (Nammu)
Sky (An)
Terrestrial Ocean (Abzu)
Earth (Ki)
Hell (Kur)
Primordial Sea (Nammu)

The Primordial Sea (Nammu) is the Universe: uncreated, eternal and infinite, enclosing the creatress matter of all that will come into being, primeval amniotic fluid that has given form to all that has been, that is and that will be. The Earth (Ki) is the plane/circle passing through the Ecliptic, and the Zodiac surrounding it. The Terrestrial Ocean (Abzu) is the “whirlpool” produced by the orbits of the planets of the Solar System. The Sky (An) is the Starry Sky above the Solar System. Hell (Kur: another proof that the Kur of which I speak in my previous article is indeed the burial mound/realm of the dead) is the Starry Sky below the Solar System.

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Finally, the known myth about Baldr’s death: the dreams premonitory of his death, the oath imposed to all living creatures to not harm him, the deities that jokingly try to harm him knowing his invulnerability, his eventual death at the hands of Höðr, the search in Hel to bring him back and the cry of all the living and dead creatures to allow his return in the world of the living.

Baldr’s death:
baldr_lies_dead

The Sumerian mythology contains a poem, called “The Dream of Dumuzi”, strikingly similar in many ways to Baldr’s myth summarized above. In this poem the god Dumuzi has premonitions of his destiny, through dreams that shows his imminent death. He knows he will be killed by a band of brigands but hopes nevertheless to avoid the inevitable and asks all the creatures of nature to cry for him. On several occasions the god is captured by the brigands, but manages to escape. At the end he seeks refuge in a pen in the desert but the brigands capture him and destiny is fulfilled. After the death of Dumuzi follows the ritualistic lamentation and Geshtinanna – his sister – starts looking for him in the realm of death, finally succeeding in bringing him back to life.

The similarities with the myth of Baldr’s death are many: already the title of the poem reminds of the “Baldrs Draumar” (“Dreams of Baldr”), then we have the premonitions of death during sleep, the attempt to avoid death, the participation of all living creatures, the fulfillment of destiny despite the efforts to avoid it, and the final search in the realm of death to bring the god back to life. We can quite easily make a parallel between the deities trying repeatedly to harm Baldr, until his eventual death, and the brigands that capture more times Dumuzi without being able to kill him, until when they finally succeed in their purpose.

Other equivalent myths are those about the resurrections of Osiris and Lemminkäinen. In the Egyptian mythology, Seth kills Osiris and dismembers his body into fourteen parts, to then scatter them throughout Egypt. Isis then collects all the body parts and reassembles them, in this way bringing back to life Osiris. In the Kalevala, Lemminkäinen goes to Tuonela – the realm of death – to pass a test and win in this way his future wife, but is killed and his body torn to pieces and thrown into the infernal river. Then the mother of Lemminkäinen descends into the underworld and recovers all the parts of his son’s body, reassembles the corpse and brings it back to life.

Lemminkäinen is brought back to life by his mother:
lemminkaisenaiti

Baldr, Dumuzi, Osiris and Lemminkäinen all represent the dead Sun that returns to life after the Winter Solstice (to then increase its brightness up until the Summer Solstice) and the child that, after completing the initiation ritual, comes out from the burial mound, he too reborn at the dawn of Winter Solstice/Yule.

Höðr, Seth and the other entities that kill the Sun God are manifestations of Autumn and Winter, the seasons when – respectively – the Sun grows old and dies.

These comparisons prove even more the fact that the European Religion is born from our blood! The only way our enemies have to destroy it is to exterminate us till the last! The Jews, the Christians and all their lackeys will fail miserably, as always! Eternity is written in our destiny!

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Part 1: Sumerian Mists (Part 1 of 3)
Part 2: Sumerian Mists (Part 2 of 3)

Different Minds, different Skies

Today we (returned to) know everything about the Earth and the Solar System but it has not always been the case.

We had the exact same notions during Antiquity and Prehistory, but after the Judeo-Christians invaded our beloved Europe – murdering millions of our ancestors, destroying and burning every manifestation of our culture on which they pointed their eyes – they forced on our minds “the fact” that our planet would actually be flat, at the center of the Sky and that if we had reached its limits we would have ended up falling into the abyss. Those who opposed, like Galileo Galilei that sustained the Heliocentric System, were labeled as heretics and forced to publicly reject their knowledge. This is, when they were not silenced in the first place through threats, or burned alive, or tortured to death. Only in 1992 the Christians have officially admitted their “error” in relation to Galileo Galilei. Exclusively what the “holy scriptures” recited had to be believed. However the Renaissance came and we returned to our ancient science, for the desperation of the Judeo-Christians. If it was for them we should still believe today in their lies, and in the future as well, until the coming of their fictional “Armageddon”.

At that point, they tried to hammer in the heads of the Europeans the fact that also our ancestors, during Antiquity and Prehistory, believed in the flatness of our planet. “Even Pagans believed to this, it was not a consequence of the wave of destruction and ignorance we brought in Europe! Oy vey!”. Then they started their distortion, corruption and willed misinterpretation of our mythologies, and today the Europeans generally think that our ancestors were indeed ignorant, and this would be proved by the fact that our mythologies tell all sort of things about the world where we live, but none of them is (apparently) close to the truth.

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Now, one of the most exploited and abused figures in this context is the one of Okeanos, a character of the Greek mythology. The Judeo-Christians have concluded that Okeanos was a river that surrounded our flat planet, delimiting the borders beyond which we would have fallen in the cosmic space. In the best case Okeanos was a symbol that represented all the waters in our planet. That’s what they think

How the Judeo-Christians see Okeanos and our planet:
terra-piatta

Now is time for us to look at the figure of Okeanos, called Ægir (“[metaphysical] scare”, “awe”) in the Norse mythology, in a European perspective:

According to the Egyptian mythology everything came into being from Nun, the primeval Ocean, primordial source of any existing form of life. The Nun is an eternal and infinite space that corresponded to what we today call “Universe”: the archaic thinking associated the concept of “water” to that of source of life and essence of purification and regeneration, with particular reference to the amniotic fluid. In the Universe, as in water, we can’t breathe and we float if gravity doesn’t affects us. The Nun, the Universe, was thus defined by the Egyptians as “the watery abyss of the sky” and “the father of the gods”, it was a creative power from which arose all forms of life. I quote some passages taken directly from an Egyptian sacred text:

“Here I am,
I that, swelling and overflowing the Abysses,
I generated, from them, the Waters of the Sky…
These waters, made me float on their liquid Spaces…
And that is why they remain in my power,
The Waters of the Sky!”.

-The Egyptian Book of the Dead

“Since this Earth has appeared
At the Dawn of Times, in the Ocean of the Sky,
Rising from the Primordial Caos…”.

-The Egyptian Book of the Dead

“I lean on the forehead of Ra
And I sail on the heavenly Ocean
Seated in peace, on the prow of his ship…”.

-The Egyptian Book of the Dead

“Look! He is alone in the middle of the heavenly Ocean
While he crosses the Horizon!”.

-The Egyptian Book of the Dead

Okeanos – the only one that could remain on his own when Zeus demanded the presence of the gods in the Olympus – was described as “tireless”, “deep/fluent”, “refluent on himself”, “with no waves”, “origin of everything”, “origin of the gods” (just like the Nun). It encircles the Earth and is in reality the Starry Sky/Universe. It has no waves because it has nothing to do with water as we understand it, or maybe because the apparent motion of the fixed stars is very slow, calm and quiet. It is tireless and refluent on itself (terms that suggests a rotation) because even the Starry Sky/Universe was moving (apparently and very slowly) at the eyes of our ancestors, as a consequence of the Precession of the Equinoxes (a motion of our planet that they noticed and knew well, but I will not talk here of their knowledge about it). It is deep because compared to terrestrial waters (that are very deep), but also because the Universe is spatially infinite. It is the origin of everything because the Universe at the same time is and contains everything, it has given existence to all that has been, that is and that will be. It is the origin of the gods because without the Universe the Solar System would not exist (here “gods” refers to the “inhabitants” of the Solar System, i.e. the planets). It is the only one not constrained to visit the Olympus at the call of Zeus because only the planets of the Solar System are “constrained” to go to Olympus (the Sun), i.e. only the planets are affected by the gravitational attraction of the Sun, not the Starry Sky/Universe.

<<But>>, say the Judeo-Christians, <<it encircles the Earth>>!

The Earth of the myths is a plane, yes, but it is not our planet, it is instead a plane that passes through the four points/corners of the year, marked by the Equinoxes and Solstices, that is the Ecliptic. The “Earth” was the ideal plane passing through the four points/pillars of the year, and this is the hidden meaning when a mythology talks about a flat and/or quadrangular Earth. The four corners that determine an “Earth” are the Zodiacal Constellations that arise behind the Sun (which changes very slowly because of the Precession of the Equinoxes, creating at every “handover” a new “Earth”) in the days of the Equinoxes and Solstices, with particular care for the one that rises in the day of the Vernal Equinox.

Now, the Fixed Stars/Universe encircle the Ecliptic, encircle the Solar System, right?

Note: the prehistoric engravings with the form of a spiral may (also) depict a maelstrom, a symbol that refers to the Solar System and the various circles made by the swirling revolutions of the planets around the Sun at their center? The maelstrom (the first part of the name is connected to the verb mala [“grind”], perhaps in reference to the “grinding” of the eras as a consequence of the cosmic cycles) is known as the “navel of the sea”, where “navel” would be a reference to the Solar System and “sea” a reference to the Universe, the “watery abyss of the sky”.

spirals_01

Moreover, in the Iliad the shield that Hephaestus builds for Achilles is described in these terms:

“…the Pleiades, the Hyades and the strength of Orion
and the Great Bear, that they call with the name of Wagon:
she turns on itself and watches Orion,

and only her has no part in the washings of Okeanos”.

In the Odyssey, Odysseus pays attention to the stars that Calypso advises him to follow:

“…staring at the Pleiades, staring at Boötes that sets late,
and at the Great Bear, that they call also with the name of Wagon,
and always she turns and fearful watches Orion,
and only her has no part in the washings of Okeanos”.

The Plough is formed by the seven shiny stars that give shape to its constellation, but these make up only its backside. Only with the other thirteen, placed before and under the other seven, the whole figure takes the form of an animal. The Plough/Ursa Major is a circumpolar constellation, thus always present above the horizon, that never sets in the course of the apparent motion of rotation of the Sky. It is thus visible for all the year in the Northern Hemisphere and never sets north of the 41° North (latitude of Madrid and Naples).

The fact that Ursa Major doesn’t participate in the washings of Okeanos is enough to understand that Okeanos is up high, it is the Starry Sky/Universe, “the watery abyss of the sky”!

How the Europeans see the the Sky: sistema-solare-3bmeteo-64658

How the Judeo-Christians see the Sky:
pane-senza-lievito_gal_landscape1