Evola: about Miscegenation and the tripartite division of the Race in Body, Soul and Spirit

“While in a “thoroughbred” horse or cat the biological element constitutes the central one, and therefore can legitimately be narrowed down to it every racial consideration, this is certainly not the case for man or, at least, for every man worthy of this name, which is yes a biological and antropological reality, but connected to elements and forces and laws of different character, superbiological, just as real as the first and whose influence on the first can often be decisive”.

“The distinction in the human being of three different principles, of body, soul and spirit, is fundamental for the traditional view. Starting from such view, it must be recognized that the inequality of mankind is not only physical, biological or anthropological, but also psychical and spiritual. Men are different not only in body, but also in soul and spirit. In accordance with this, the doctrine of race must be articulated in three degrees. The racial problem must therefore be placed for each of the three elements. The racist consideration of man as body, as a purely natural and biological entity, is the task that belongs to the doctrine of the race of first degree. Follows the consideration of man since he is soul, that is the study of the race of the soul. As crowning, we’ll have a doctrine of the race of third degree, that is the racial study of man since he is not only body and soul, but, in addition, spirit”.

“The racism of first degree, having to consider the body’s data and, in general, that aspect of the human being, according to which he obeys to purely natural, biological, anthropological, constitutional laws and determinisms, can legitimately assume the research methods used, in general, by the natural sciences. In front of the environment the race has a certain amplitude of reaction, the type can mutate, but in a transitory and contingent manner, the same way as an elastic body that resumes its shape, once the action of the force that deformed it has ceased. As a determinant, essential, decisive and permanent, is however always considered this internal racial hereditary element, always ready to reassert itself”.

“As racism of second degree one must consider a theory of the race of the soul and a typology of the soul of the races. Such a racism has to detect the elements, in their way primary and irreducible, that act from the inside, causing groups of individuals to manifest a constant way of being or “style” in terms of acting, thinking, feeling. Here we arrive at a new concept of the racial purity of a given type: it is no longer the case to see if, like in the racism of first degree, a given individual presents that given group of physical characteristics or, also, generically characterological, which make it conform to the erditary type, but it is about establishing if the race of the body brought by a given individual is the appropriate expression, in compliance, of his race of the soul, and vice versa. If this occurs, the type is pure also according to the survey of second degree”.

“Keep in mind, for example the phenomenon of the comprehension. In reality there are too many cases of people, that are exactly of the same race of the body, of the same stock, sometimes even – as brothers or fathers and children – of the same blood in the most real sense, but nevertheless they fail to understand each other. A frontier separates their souls, their way of feeling and seeing is different and against this the common race of the body and the common blood can do nothing. There is a possibility of comprehension, and therefore of true solidarity, of profound unity, only where exists a common “race of the soul”. Come into question, here, subtle elements, of an instinctive sensibility. While for long years nothing has been suspected, in a given circumstance can happen that a given person with his way of acting gives us the net feeling that it “is of another race” and, then, there will be nothing more to do with it, there may be, with it, relations of various nature, but always at an intimate restraint, at an intimate distance”.

“Let us now go and say something about the racist research of third degree, having for its object, as known, the races of the spirit. This is, indeed, the research of the race according to its ultimate root, wherever we talk about normal civilizations and of superior human strains; root, already communicating with super-personal, super-ethnic metaphysical forces. For such a research, the specific way to conceive both the sacred and the supernatural, rather than the relationship of man with respect to it, the vision of life in the highest sense, furthermore, the whole world of symbols and myths, constitute a matter so positive and objective, as for the racism of first degree are the facial indices and the cranial structures”.

“It is evident that, kept in mind all this, the problem itself of the hybrids and of their effects must be studied much more in-depth compared to what is usually done, as long as the doctrinal field is maintained, without looking for, instead, suitable suggestions for their practical utility. In general, the perniciousness of the hybrids should certainly be acknowledged, and it is of course all the more evident, as much as the racial elements are of the two parts are definitely heterogeneous. Then we stress, that the deleterious character of the hybrids is not revealed much in the determinations of degenerate and deformed human types compared to their original race of the body, but especially in the realization of cases, in which interior and exterior no longer match, in which the race of the body can be in contrast with the that of the soul and, this, in turn, can contradict the race of the spirit, or vice versa, thus giving rise to dilacerated beings, semi-hysterical, to beings that, in themselves, are no longer, so to speak, no one at home. And when no inner resistance, no awakening of the primordial forming force occurs and, instead, to the previous hybridizations new ones are added, the result is the creation of a true ethnic amalgam, of a disarticulated mass, shapeless, semi-leveled, for which starts seriously to become true the immortal principle of the universal equality”.

Note: you can interchange the term “soul”, in reality quite ambiguous, with any of these terms: “mind”, “character”, “personality”.

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Related posts: Evola: about Work, Economy and LifeEvola: about Christianism, Chivalry and the Nordic-Germanic vision of LifeEvola: about Initiation, Immortality, Death and RebirthLost Wisdom

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Bhagavadgita (Part 1 of 2)

The Bhagavadgītā is a Hindu sacred text, part of the Hindu epic Mahabharata. It consists of a dialogue between the Pandava prince Arjuna, a hero son of the god Indra, and his charioteer and guide Krishna, an incarnation of the divine principle.

War between Pandavas and Kauravas is imminent and the dialogue takes place in the centre of the battlefield, right before the beginning of the Kuruksetra’s battle: Arjuna is confused and torn by moral dilemmas after noticing that among the enemy’s army there are his relatives, teachers and friends. Arjuna seeks advice from Krishna, which reminds him his duties as a kshatriya (i.e. a warrior) through the exposition of philosophical and religious concepts.

Krishna assists Arjuna:
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In this first part I quote verses that expose mainly the doctrine concerning the immortality of the spirit, but also concepts in relation with Stoicism and the thught of Parmenides.

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 First Chant:

12.”In truth, there has never been a time when I was not, nor you, nor these leaders of peoples; and, in the future, it will not come that in which we will not be”.

13.”The soul incarnated in the body experiments childhood, youth and the old age; then it takes another body. The man that knows this doesn’t suffer [any] bewilderment”.

Verses 12./13. begin to expose the doctrine concerning the immortality of the individual spirit and its eternal rebirth through the piṭryāna (“way of the fathers”).

14.”Son of Kunti, the impressions of the senses [born] from contact with material things produces hot and cold, pain and pleasure, they come and go and are impermanent. Endure them, Bhārata”.

Krishna calls Arjuna with many epithets in the Bhagavadgītā: Bhārata, Mahabahu, Pārtha, Kaunteya and Paramtāpa in the verses that I quoted here.

15.”Best of men, one who from them [impressions] is not disturbed, [that remains] equanimous and firm in pleasure and pain is worthy of immortality”.

Verses 14./15. express a concept that we find in Stoicism: men must understand that the things that doesn’t depend on us (like the sensations of hot and cold, pain and pleasure) must be endured firmly/indifferently, without being disturbed or fascinated by them.

16.”What doesn’t exist can’t come into being, from the being there is no cessation of existence. This ultimate truth has been unveiled by those who have seen the essence of things”.

This verse expresses a knowledge identical to that of Parmenides: nothing is created from nothing and nothing can be destroyed into nothing.

18.”These bodies of the eternal ātman, indestructible, immeasurable, are called perishable. Fight, then, Bhārata”.

The ātman is the intimate essence of every being, the principle of life (i.e. the individual spirit).

19.”The one who believes to be killed and the one who thinks of killing are both in error. That one [the ātman] can’t kill nor be killed”.

20.”It is never born and never dies. Having always been, it can’t cease to be. Unborn, permanent, imperishable, ancient, it is not even killed when the body is killed”.

22.”Like a man deposing the old clothes takes new ones, so the embodied soul (dehi) deposes the worn-out bodies and enters in other new”.

23.”The weapons doesn’t pierce [the ātman], nor fire burns it, nor is bathed by waters, nor wind withers it”.

26.”If you believe that it is born and dies continuously, likewise, Mahabahu, you must not grieve,”

27.”because, in truth, sure is death for he that is born and certain is rebirth for he that is dead. Therefore, for an inescapable fact, you should not feel pity”.

Verses 19./20./22./23./26./27. continue to expose the doctrine concerning the immortality of the individual spirit and its eternal rebirth, in very explicit terms.

38.”Equally fair-minded in pleasure and pain, in gain and loss, in victory and defeat, therefore get ready to fight; in this way you will not be able to commit error”.

55.”When, Pārtha, a man eradicates from his mind all desires and finds his satisfaction in the ātman and for the ātman, he is said to have a stable intelligence”.

57.”The one who has given up all attachment, that is not flattered by praise nor offended by reprimand: that person owns a stable intelligence”.

Verses 38./55./57. continue to praise the man who treats the things that doesn’t depend on him as they must be treated: in a detached way and without subjective reactions.

Second chant:

34.”Attraction and repulsion for the objects are inherent to the corresponding sense: nobody should submit to these two for they represent the two enemies”.

39.”Knowledge is [so] wrapped by this constant enemy, Kaunteya, insatiable fire that takes the form of desire”.

Verses 34./39. express an explicit critique of materialism, seen as opposed to the pursuit of knowledge.

Fourth chant:

5.”Numerous are my past lives and yours too, Arjuna. Just that I know them all, while you don’t know them, Paramtāpa”.

Also this verse refer to the eternal rebirth of the individual spirit.

Sixth chant:

40.”Pārtha, nor in this nor in the other world such a man is lost, because there is no author of beautiful and good deeds that incurs in a bad destiny”.

The content of this verse can be compared to that expressed by this maxim: “there is no death for the honourable, only an eternal rebirth”.

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Part 2: Bhagavadgita (Part 2 of 2)

The Harmony of Opposites

Heraclitus was an enigmatic Greek philosopher, defined because of this as “the obscure”. During his last years of life he became a hermit of the mountains, being an aristocratic spirit that disdained the multitudes: not bad for one who lived in Ancient Greece! He should have seen the world as it is today…

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Anyway, one thing that is clear from the fragments at our disposal is his doctrine concerning the harmony of opposites:

“The opposites concordant, and from the discordant comes beautiful harmony, and everything happens according to contention”.

“The same thing are the living and the dead, the awake and the sleeping, the young and the old: these indeed changing are those and those again changing are these”.

“What is cold becomes hot, what is hot becomes cold, what is moist becomes dry, what is dry becomes moist”.

“Immortal mortals, mortal immortals, living their death and dying their life”.

“One and the same is the path that goes upward and the path that goes down”.

“The same is in fact the beginning and the end in the circumference of the circle”.

“God is day-night, winter-summer, war-peace, satiety-hunger”.

“Junctions are entire-not entire, concordant-discordant, harmonic-disharmonic, and from all things the one and from the one all things”.

Listening not to me, but to the lógos, it is wise to agree that all things are one“.

Heraclitus understood that the Law of the Universe, the Logos (intended as “relation” or “connection”, in reference to the infinite series of relations/connections generated by Nature and operating in it, through the mediation of opposites that alternate), is the relation of contraposition, complementarity, interdependency and alternation between two opposite concepts (being-becoming, one-many, eternity-time, infinite-finite, life-death, past-future, inhalation-exhalation, peace-war, hot-cold, etc.) that are apparently in constant conflict with each other, but in reality, at the same time, they need each other because everything originates from its opposite: the opposites can indeed be defined only for opposition, and they can never be independently determined: nothing would exist if there were not, at the same time, also its opposite.

Note: here lies the meaning of the figure of the Androgynous (from Greek androgynos, composed by andros,”male”, and gyne, “woman”), the complete and undivided being best known for its description given by Plato in the Symposium. The symbolism that lies in this figure refers to the coexistence of opposites and their interdependence, the underlying unity hidden by their apparent separation and opposition: in biological terms it refers to the restoration of the absolute and primordial unity of the being. The coincidentia oppositorum (a Latin phrase meaning “coincidence of opposites”) is the state of being in which the opposites coincide: for example, at the climax of sexual love there is a coincidence between man and woman, a momentary emersion of the androgynous state of being, the erotic impulse having its deepest meaning in the reintegration and reunification of the two divided parts of the human being; this biological coincidence, in specific cases and conditions, allows to momentarily experience a purely spiritual and trascendental state, what in philosophy would consist in the culmination of the metaphysical speculation, namely the inner realization of the coincidence between the concepts of Being and Becoming (therefore two ways of appearing of a single reality), union that results in a single principle, a metaphisical reality that is beyond the opposition between contraries, that in it instead coincide: the Universal Reality.

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If there was no night, what would give us the opportunity to define the day as such? If there was no winter, what would give us the opportunity to define summer as such? If there was no war, what would give us the opportunity to define peace as such? If there was no death, what would give us the opportunity to define life as such? The same on the contrary and for all the opposites that exist. They are two faces of the same coin, bound in the same way as an upward path seems a path that goes down if seen from above.

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As it’s evident from the fragments cited above, Heraclitus thought that everything is destined to pass eternally from one state to another: what is cold and becomes hot will cool, what is slow and becomes fast will slow down, what is alive and dies will return to life. I’m alive (again) because I died, and I am destined to die (again) and then to return to life (again), in the same way as I’m awake (again) because I fell asleep, only to be destined to fell asleep (again) and then to return to be awake (again). The end of the circle coincides exactly with its beginning. There is no immobility, only an eternal and unceasing metamorphosis, a current with no beginning and no end, a constant change and transformation: panta rei (“everything flows”). As Heraclitus said: “No man ever steps in the same river twice, for it’s not the same river (in its perennial flow) and he’s not the same man (in his perennial becoming)“.

We can affirm that Heraclitus believed in the immortality and eternal rebirth of the individual spirit: if it is possible to be reborn then it is necessary that the spirit exists (from what we would return to life if not from it that is eternal and immortal, while the body is temporary and mortal?) and that it doesn’t disappear after death, but that it continues to exist even outside the body.

Anyway, we need both the opposites and there will always be both: their result is harmony and equilibrium: war will come after peace but at a certain point there will be peace again, winter will come after summer but at a certain point there will be summer again, etc. In this Heraclitus saw the Logos, the Universal Law of Nature!

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