About Zeus and Typhon

Varg Vikernes has made a video where he talks about the femur (for our ancestors a symbol of movement and thus of the life force) in relation to the prehistoric burial mounds and the initiatory ritual of rebirth that took place inside them. In this article I will try to unveil the symbolic relation between these archaeological finds and the myth of the battle between Zeus and Typhon.

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Typhon was a monstrous creature described in different ways by the various ancient sources, but generally speaking he was a gigantic winged monster with an at least partially serpentine shape.

Typhon:
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Without venturing into what would be a complicated analysis, I can simplify by saying that for me Typhon is a symbolic incarnation of Death. In the mythical tale Zeus figths with Typhon and tries to kill him, but the monster manages to sever the tendons of Zeus’s hands and feet, therefore immobilizing the god. The key in this context is to understand that the tendons fulfill the same symbolic function of the femur in relation to the ability to move and to the life force of an individual: the tendons perform in the myth the same role that the femur performs in the ritual. Zeus is immobilized, alive but at the same time symbolically dead, awaiting his rebirth (i.e. awaiting to regain the ability to move), exactly like the divine ancestor inside the burial mound.

It will not surprise the fact that at that point Typhon will bring Zeus inside a cave (i.e. the burial mound), where he will hide the tendons of the god inside a bear’s skin (an extremely archaic symbolism that comes directly from the primordial Bear Cult practiced by the Neanderthals long before the end of the last Ice Age). The cave (i.e. the womb of the earth) is the Korykion Antron (from korykos, “knapsack”) and is protected by the dragoness Delphyne (from delphys, “womb”).

The Korykion Antron:
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The korykos (“knapsack”):
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But finally Hermes (the Greek word hermaion defined both a fortunate man and a pile of stones [perhaps originally in reference to the dolmens, i.e. the burial mounds?]) manages to break into che cave (he is a psychopomp god with the privilege of being able to access and return freely from the realm of death) and to recover the precious tendons: in this way Zeus regains the ability to move (i.e. he returns to life after an apparent and symbolic death) and defeats Typhon (i.e. Death) once and for all; the divine child (i.e. Hermes/Odin) has found the femur of his ancestor inside the mound, and by means of an initiatory ritual has reached a superior and transcendent spiritual stage: he remembers and is aware of his previous existences and consciences, which now are, at the same time, distinct and unified realities in the shape of this reborn divine being.

Related post: He who makes the Sky tremble

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Thirst for Immortality

Previously we have clarified that the concept of “Tree of Life” (as well as any other axis mundi) is a metaphoric image that refers to the placenta. Starting from this premise it is easy to understand how the “drink of immortality” that, in various mythologies, is obtained from the aforementioned tree is nothing but the liquid nourishment (a real “liquid of life”) that from the placenta reaches the fetus by means of the umbilical cord: let’s see some examples.

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In the Vedas and in the Upanishads the Soma/Amrita is a juice that drips from the Tree of Life (remaining in the Indian context I can add that the Buddha achieved the metaphysical awakening [of the memories of his previous lives] under the Tree of Life) that is believed to grow in the mountains or in the “navel of the earth” (the concepts of “sacred/cosmic moutain” and “navel of the earth/world” are metaphors that refer to the burial mound, i.e. the realm of the dead), juice capable of conferring immortality to those who drink it: the etymology of the name is similar to that of the Ambrosia and means “immortality”. In the ancient Persian mythology we find the Haoma, another drink that bestows immortality, provided in this case too by a Tree of Life that grows in the mountains.

Note: when we talk about immortality, we are not referring to the indefinite extension in time of an individual biological existence, without the occurence of changes in the state of the being. We refer instead to the possibility that, through a strong emotional shock in the context of an initiatory ritual of rebirth and through an induced awakening of the memory of the blood, the achievement of a transcendental state could bring out into the consciousness of a young man the memory and awareness of his previous existences.

In the Greek mythology the Ambrosia and the Nectar are both sometimes the food or the drink that enable the gods to be immortals and perennially young: many have suggested that these mythical foods may be identified with honey or mead (i.e. fermented honey), due to the fact that ancient sources define honey as the first and primordial nourishment of the gods, while mead was known in antiquity as the beverage of the gods. In my opinion this connection makes sense, even more so when we know that the child who went inside the burial mound (thus becoming a fetus inside the womb of the earth) to accomplish the rebirth ritual carried with him some honey to appease the sorceress/priestess (primordially the she-bear) inside the grave, and he himself had to eat some of that honey: the (symbolical) nourishment of the fetus inside the womb…

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To reinforce what we have just stated we can refer to the Norse mythology, where the dew that covers the leaves of the yew Yggdrasill (yes, some ancient sources use the term barr [“needle-shaped leaf”] in relation to its leaves, furthermore the yew is the tree that more than any other can symbolize the placenta, because in it grow red berries that recall the placenta’s red bubbles full of nutritious blood), in poetic language called “mead tree”, has the taste of honey and is compared to mead. Bees are nourished by Yggdrasill’s leaves and, as suggested in a previous article, the child who faced the initiatory ritual was symbolically seen as a bee.

The leaves and berries of the yew:
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In the Völsunga Saga is told that in the hall of Völsung’s house there was a big apple tree (the apples hide the same symbolism described above in relation to the red berries of the yew, they are the source of the “drink of immortality”), whose branches protruded from the roof: this tree was called Barnstokkr (“children’s trunk”, i.e. the placenta).

Barnstokkr and an apple tree:
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The Indo-Iranian god Mitra was born from a rock (“petra genitrix“, originally the burial mound and during classical antiquity the underground temple/cave called Mithraeum: both symbols of the womb) surrounded by the serpent Ouroboros (i.e. the umbilical cord), near a sacred spring (i.e. the amniotic fluid and/or the liquid nourishment of the placenta) and under a sacred tree (i.e. the placenta).

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Now, why not throw into the fray a brief insight into the symbolism of the horn, which in certain cases represents the umbilical cord? First, the Cornucopia (“horn of plenty”), that has a very explicit symbolism in relation to the nourishment (of the fetus in the womb).

The cornucopia:
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Then the Sigrdrífumál, where Sigrdrífa after being awakened offers to Sigurðr the minnisveig, the “drink of memory” (i.e. the memory of previous lives), a horn (i.e. the umbilical cord) full of mead (whose symbolism, in this context, we have already examined earlier). Lastly, the figure of Mímir (“memory” [of the previous lives]), the possessor of Mímisbrunnr (“well [a symbol of the womb] of memory”, located beneath one of the three roots of Yggdrasill): every morning, using the horn Gjallarhorn, he drinks the precious and sacred liquid (mead, according to the Völuspá) contained in the well of wisdom (i.e. of memory). Even Odin managed to get the chance to drink a sip of that liquid.

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I conclude my dissertation with the Grail (or Holy Grail if you prefer), traditionally known as a cup/chalice whose content has vivifying and healing virtues: are you thinking what I am thinking? The cup/chalice and the tree have a very similar shape and, taking into consideration the virtues of the Grail, we can assume that this important subject of the Arthurian literature symbolizes the placenta and its life-giving liquid nourishment.

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It should also be noted that in certain late medieval sources the Grail is called Sangréal: in Old French, san graal or san gréal means “holy grail” and sang réal means “royal blood”; surely the blood full of nutrients contained in the placenta (on which it feeds the fetus) is “royal” and “divine”, not an ordinary one. In this context will be good to remember that for our ancestors wine was a symbol of blood, specifically in reference to what we have just explained about the function of the blood contained in the placenta: that’s the reason why Odin, the symbolical fetus, only needs wine to feed himself.

Now you will be able to see with different eyes the Christian rite of the Eucharist, during which a mass of crazy fanatics drinks Christ’s blood from a chalice full of wine…

What the fuck I’m doing?!”:
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Evola: about Initiation, Immortality, Death and Rebirth

“To explain ourselves, is necessary to refer to a fundamental traditional teaching, after all already mentioned: to the one concerning the two natures. There is the nature of the immortals and there is the nature of the mortals; there is the superior region of <<those-who-are>> and there is the inferior region of the <<becoming>>”.

“The passage from the one to the other was considered possible, but on an exceptional basis and under the condition of an essential and effective transformation, positive, from a way of being to another way of being. Such transformation was achieved by means of the initiation in the strictest sense of the term. Through the initiation some men escaped from one nature and conquered the other, thus ceasing of being men. Their appearance in the other form of existence constituted, in the order of this last, a rigorously equivalent event to that of the generation of the physical birth. They were therefore re-born, they were re-generated”.

“To the eternal sleep, to the larval existence in Hades, to the dissolution thinked as destiny of all those for whom the forms of this human life constituted the beginning and the end – would not escape therefore that those who already alive have been able to orient their consciousness towards the superior world. The Initiated, the Adepts are at the limit of such path. Obtained the <<remembrance>>, according to the expressions of Plutarch they become free, they go without constraints, crowned they celebrate the <<mysteries>> and see on the earth the crowd of those who are not initiated and that are not <<pure>> press and push themselves in the mud and in the darkness”.

“To tell the truth, the traditional teaching about the postmortem has always stressed the existing difference between survival and immortality. Can be conceived various modalities, more or less contingents, of survival for this or that principle or complex of the human being. But this has nothing to do with immortality, which can only be thinked as <<olympic immortality>>, as a <<becoming gods>>. Such a conception lasted in the West until the hellenic antiquity. From the doctrine indeed of the <<two natures>> proceeded the knowledge of the destiny of a death, or of a precarious, larval survival for the ones, of a conditioned immortality (conditioned by the initiation) for the others”.

“It was the vulgarization and the abusive generalization of the truth exclusively valid for the initiates – vulgarization that began in some degenerate forms of orphism and had then broad development with christianism – to give birth to the stange idea of the <<immortality of the soul>>, extended to any soul and subtracted to each condition. Since then until today, the illusion continues in the various forms of the religious and <<spiritualistic>> thought: the soul of a mortal is immortal – the immortality is a certainty, not a problematic possibility. Thus established the misunderstanding, perverted in that way the truth, the initiation could no longer appear necessary: its value of real and effective operation could no longer be understood. Every really transcendent possibility was little by little abolished. And when they continued to talk about <<rebirth>>, the whole thing by and large ran out in a matter of sentiment, in a moral and religious meaning, in a more or less indeterminated and <<mystical>> state”.

-Julius Evola

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Related posts: Evola: about Work, Economy and Life.Evola: about Christianism, Chivalry and the Nordic-Germanic vision of Life

Bhagavadgita (Part 1 of 2)

The Bhagavadgītā is a Hindu sacred text, part of the Hindu epic Mahabharata. It consists of a dialogue between the Pandava prince Arjuna, a hero son of the god Indra, and his charioteer and guide Krishna, an incarnation of the divine principle.

War between Pandavas and Kauravas is imminent and the dialogue takes place in the centre of the battlefield, right before the beginning of the Kuruksetra’s battle: Arjuna is confused and torn by moral dilemmas after noticing that among the enemy’s army there are his relatives, teachers and friends. Arjuna seeks advice from Krishna, which reminds him his duties as a kshatriya (i.e. a warrior) through the exposition of philosophical and religious concepts.

Krishna assists Arjuna:
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In this first part I quote verses that expose mainly the doctrine concerning the immortality of the spirit, but also concepts in relation with Stoicism and the thught of Parmenides.

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 First Chant:

12.”In truth, there has never been a time when I was not, nor you, nor these leaders of peoples; and, in the future, it will not come that in which we will not be”.

13.”The soul incarnated in the body experiments childhood, youth and the old age; then it takes another body. The man that knows this doesn’t suffer [any] bewilderment”.

Verses 12./13. begin to expose the doctrine concerning the immortality of the individual spirit and its eternal rebirth through the piṭryāna (“way of the fathers”).

14.”Son of Kunti, the impressions of the senses [born] from contact with material things produces hot and cold, pain and pleasure, they come and go and are impermanent. Endure them, Bhārata”.

Krishna calls Arjuna with many epithets in the Bhagavadgītā: Bhārata, Mahabahu, Pārtha, Kaunteya and Paramtāpa in the verses that I quoted here.

15.”Best of men, one who from them [impressions] is not disturbed, [that remains] equanimous and firm in pleasure and pain is worthy of immortality”.

Verses 14./15. express a concept that we find in Stoicism: men must understand that the things that doesn’t depend on us (like the sensations of hot and cold, pain and pleasure) must be endured firmly/indifferently, without being disturbed or fascinated by them.

16.”What doesn’t exist can’t come into being, from the being there is no cessation of existence. This ultimate truth has been unveiled by those who have seen the essence of things”.

This verse expresses a knowledge identical to that of Parmenides: nothing is created from nothing and nothing can be destroyed into nothing.

18.”These bodies of the eternal ātman, indestructible, immeasurable, are called perishable. Fight, then, Bhārata”.

The ātman is the intimate essence of every being, the principle of life (i.e. the individual spirit).

19.”The one who believes to be killed and the one who thinks of killing are both in error. That one [the ātman] can’t kill nor be killed”.

20.”It is never born and never dies. Having always been, it can’t cease to be. Unborn, permanent, imperishable, ancient, it is not even killed when the body is killed”.

22.”Like a man deposing the old clothes takes new ones, so the embodied soul (dehi) deposes the worn-out bodies and enters in other new”.

23.”The weapons doesn’t pierce [the ātman], nor fire burns it, nor is bathed by waters, nor wind withers it”.

26.”If you believe that it is born and dies continuously, likewise, Mahabahu, you must not grieve,”

27.”because, in truth, sure is death for he that is born and certain is rebirth for he that is dead. Therefore, for an inescapable fact, you should not feel pity”.

Verses 19./20./22./23./26./27. continue to expose the doctrine concerning the immortality of the individual spirit and its eternal rebirth, in very explicit terms.

38.”Equally fair-minded in pleasure and pain, in gain and loss, in victory and defeat, therefore get ready to fight; in this way you will not be able to commit error”.

55.”When, Pārtha, a man eradicates from his mind all desires and finds his satisfaction in the ātman and for the ātman, he is said to have a stable intelligence”.

57.”The one who has given up all attachment, that is not flattered by praise nor offended by reprimand: that person owns a stable intelligence”.

Verses 38./55./57. continue to praise the man who treats the things that doesn’t depend on him as they must be treated: in a detached way and without subjective reactions.

Second chant:

34.”Attraction and repulsion for the objects are inherent to the corresponding sense: nobody should submit to these two for they represent the two enemies”.

39.”Knowledge is [so] wrapped by this constant enemy, Kaunteya, insatiable fire that takes the form of desire”.

Verses 34./39. express an explicit critique of materialism, seen as opposed to the pursuit of knowledge.

Fourth chant:

5.”Numerous are my past lives and yours too, Arjuna. Just that I know them all, while you don’t know them, Paramtāpa”.

Also this verse refer to the eternal rebirth of the individual spirit.

Sixth chant:

40.”Pārtha, nor in this nor in the other world such a man is lost, because there is no author of beautiful and good deeds that incurs in a bad destiny”.

The content of this verse can be compared to that expressed by this maxim: “there is no death for the honourable, only an eternal rebirth”.

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Part 2: Bhagavadgita (Part 2 of 2)

Eternal Regret (Part 2 of 2)

“What is eternal is circular, what is circular is eternal”.

-Aristotle

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The traditional European vision of life and of time is circular, without a beginning and without an end: a circle that completes its course eternally. An example in support of this: for the ancient Romans the particle “an” meant “circum” (“around”) and from “an” derive both the Latin “annus” (“year”), with the meaning of circle, and “annulus” (“ring”), symbol of eternity for both its circularity and the metal with which it is identified, that is gold. The year was therefore seen as an infinite circle and not as a finite line, it represented a temporal cycle destined to repeat itself without end.

The Sun, the Moon, the Seasons, the Ice Ages and even the Civilizations: their manifestations are marked by cyclical rhythms. Also men and animals, thanks to their offspring, fall into this universal cyclicity. Everything that is animated in the Universe moves in circular and eternal cycles, this being also the meaning of the swastica/hooked cross (the “wheel of time”) in all its forms and depictions: the four branches symbolize the eternal ciclicity and rebirth of all the powers in the Universe.

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-Winter, Spring, Summer, Autumn and again Winter.
-Night, Morning, Day, Evening and again Night.
-New Moon, Rising Moon, Full Moon, Waning Moon and again New Moon.
-Spiritual Life, Rebirth, Life, Death and again Spiritual Life.

“The archaic time is the universe, and as the universe it is circular and definite. Classical antiquity didn’t believed in progress, but in the eternal returns”.

-Giorgio De Santillana

“The conception of time of our ancestors was very different from the modern, linear and monotonous. They had done of time a structure, a cyclical time, where past and future called each other”.

-Giorgio De Santillana

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Philosophers like Plato and Aristotle saw this as the state of Becoming (state to which belong our body and identifiable with the moon and the four arms/branches of the swastica), characterized by mobility, mutability, temporality and multiplicity. Its inevitable opposite is the state of Being (state to which belong our spirit and identifiable with the sun and the central point of the swastica), characterized by immobility, immutability, eternity and uniqueness. According to them the Becoming is the opposite and reflection of the Being and vice versa, whereby one can not exist without the other, they are two faces of the same reality, they are one, just like the waves and the sea are a single water: there are no waves without sea, and there is no sea without waves. The waves are only sea but despite this live their existence as waves, likewise we are only part of a single living organism (the Universe) but despite this we live our existence as human beings. The Being is the One (indefinable, because each definition includes an opposite/contrary and is therefore included in the context of multiplicity) of Plato and the Unmoved Mover (“that which moves without being moved”, a concept equivalent to the wei wu wei [“action without action”] of Taoism and to the axis mundi [the motionless center around which revolves the Earth, exactly like, on a bigger scale, the motionless Sun that by means of its gravitational attraction forces the planets of the Solar System to accomplish their motions of revolution around it]) of Aristotle.

Center/Being and Circumference/Becoming:
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Note: the ancient sacred groves (like the Roman lucus and the Celtic nemeton), at whose center there was a circular clearing that allowed the Sun’s rays to penetrate, were a physical image of the metaphysical principles of the center and the circumference

Listening not to me, but to the lógos, it is wise to agree that all things are one“.

-Heraclitus

“And from all things the one and from the one all things”.

-Heraclitus

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Two faces of the same coin but what was the real meaning of those concepts? Maybe they saw the Universe both as container and content, both as matrix of all that exists and all that exists? Space and Matter being synonyms, the exact same thing, two names for the same reality, each one existing to the extent that the other exists? But in this case it would not really exist only the state of Becoming, independent and unbegotten? Or, on the other hand, exists only the state of Being, past and future (i.e. the Becoming) being nothing but illusory representations of the mind, the present instant being the only true reality?

As Plato understood: time/becoming is the moving image of eternity/being. This seems to be the answer.

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The Neanderthal man (i.e. the Proto-European) was originally able to deeply understand and fathom eternity and infinity, and the concept of “year”, for example, was alien to him and as a consequence that of a beginning and an end of a year, because he only lived the instant, the true present, elusive for us today. In his perspective “past” and “future” don’t exist, both being born from the finite perspective in which today we found ourselves involved. If you think well about it, past and future really don’t exist except in our minds as a consequence of the fact that we are trapped in a linear and finite time. The concept of “past” (i.e. imaginary replica/representation) exists but not the past itself, the concept of “future” (i.e. future projection) exists but not the future itself. Only the “present” exists, the eternal and immutable instant.

However, we can discuss about these concepts but we can’t really understand and grasp their essence: we are stuck with a past, an elusive present and a future as we all intend them (i.e. time, that is history, because history as we intend it started together with the birth of time, with our transition/fall into a temporal perspective). We are able to briefly experience eternity, I think, only when we remain enthralled by what I would define as platonic ideas. Plato’s ideas are forms/elements having an immutable, eternal, out of time, archetypical existence (therefore the deities fall into this category, when are seen/interpreted as archetypes, role models, stages of life, ideals, etc.) in opposition to beings and objects that are mutable, finite/linear, within time, vectors/manifestations of every particular idea. Platonic ideas as ideas in itself, separated from the beings/things where the ideas manifest themselves, are also expressed in this example of Chinese sophism: “Wanting to prove, starting from the idea [in itself] that the ideas [in things] are not at all ideas [in itself], is worth less than wanting to prove starting from the non-idea that the ideas [in things] are not the idea [in itself]. Wanting to prove starting from the horse [in general] that [a white] horse is not [a] horse [in general] is worth less than wanting to prove starting from the non-horse that [a white] horse is not [a] horse [in general].

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If you’ve ever been in a temporary condition of astonishment, enchantment, metaphysical joy and serenity, characterized by the sensation of being out of time and followed by a sort of awakening that leaves you with a particular melancholy and regret for having lost that condition, then you probably have experienced a platonic idea, a particular astonishment due to a metaphysical intuition (“metaphysics” means “the science [i.e. knowledge] of what goes beyond the physical”, in philosophy “the meaning and ultimate principle of the ideas”) and thus eternity. It’s something that happens briefly and quite unconsciously, without really realizing it, often while you are looking intensely at something or someone. I’m not able to explain it in a better way!

Part 1: Eternal Regret (Part 1 of 2)

Some Cases of Burial Mounds (Part 1 of 3)

During his first labor Heracles descended in the cave where resided the Nemean Lion. After killing it Heracles fell into a sleep from which he awoke at the thirtieth day from the beginning of the labor and then he crowned himself with celery. Ancient artists positioned lions on graves, and celery was used to adorn them. Heracles is the child that goes inside the cave/burial mound to face the initiation ritual, his awakening is to mean his rebirth and he adorned himself with celery because he “overcame” death.

London, British Museum

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Tír na nÓg (“land of the eternal young”) is the realm of death in the Irish mythology: a place at the edge of the world, an island located west, where the Sun sets (i.e. dies). It’s hard to reach it if not invited by one of the elves that resides there (that is to say, if not invited to be reborn by the spirit of one of your ancestors). Oisín remains there one year but on the way back finds out that in reality a hundred years are passed in Ireland. It’s a reference to the fact that the mind/spirit of the ancestor is reborn in his descendant: much time has passed from when the ancestor died but little time from when Oisín entered the burial mound to accomplish the initiation ritual.

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Romulus and Remus, mythical founders of Rome, were the sons of Mars – the god of war – and of the vestal virgin Rea Silvia. After birth they were placed in a basket and entrusted to the waters of the Tiber river. The basket ran aground in a puddle at the foothills of a fig tree, the “Ficus Ruminalis” (from Latin “ruma”, “breast”), near a cave, the Lupercal. According to the different versions of the tale a she-wolf suckled Romulus and Remus in both these places. The she-wolf was originally a she-bear and the cave her lair, symbolically the womb of the earth (i.e. the realm of the dead), while the waters to which the twins are entrusted represent the amniotic fluid. Romulus and Remus must be seen as the embryos of the she-bear, that she feeds to develop them. The fig tree is the placenta, “ruminalis” (“breast”) because the placenta is in fact the “breast” of the fetus as it contains the nourishment useful to the development of the child.

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Part 2: Some Cases of Burial Mounds (Part 2 of 3)
Part 3: Some Cases of Burial Mounds (Part 3 of 3)

The Roman Genius

The Genius of the Roman Religion is a numen/guardian spirit that guides, plasm and govern the life of an individual from his birth until death. The etimology of the Latin word “genius” means “divinity or guardian/tutelary spirit that watches a person from his birth; spirit, incarnation, generative power, inborn nature”. It shares with the word “nature” and the Latin word “gens” (“tribe, people”) the PIE root *gene- (“to generate, give life”), encouraging “inborn nature” as the original meaning of the word.

Ancient depiction of a Genius:
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Analyzing these elements in the light of the European initiation ritual of reincarnation/rebirth in the long dead ancestors, or generally speaking in the European belief on the reincarnation/rebirth of the individual spirit in the ancestry, we can see that the figure of the Genius takes shape directly from that ritual and from that belief, because it symbolizes the dead ancestor. The festivity dedicated to the Genius coincides with the birthday of the person under its tutelage, the latter being no more than its reincarnation. In Rome the thalamus, the marital bed, was called “lectus genialis” (“bed of the genius”) because it’s thanks to the act of love that the Genius (the dead ancestor) is reborn, through the conception of a new member of the ancestry. The part of the body related with the Genius is the forehead, meaning the head/skull, since prehistory the part of the body symbolizing the mind/spirit of the individual. The Genius is consecrated to the forehead to symbolize how the descendant has inherited the mind/spirit of his ancestor, which is reborn in him. The Genius was abitually depicted in the form of a snake, as the various snakes/dragons that the heroes of the myths must fight during their initiation rituals: the snake/dragon represents the umbilical cord/placenta.

The Genius depicted as a snake:
vettii

The Genius is equivalent to the Demon/Daimon of the Greeks (the one that Socrates says to have) and the Guardian Angel of the Christians (…). The Latin word “daemon” means “spirit” while the Greek word “daimon” means “divinity, divine power, guiding spirit, tutelary divinity, spirit of the dead, fortune”, and their common PIE root means “divider, supplier” (of fortune/destiny). Other equivalent figures are the Fylgja (literally “someone that accompanies”, sometimes designated as “aettarfylgja”, “fylgja of the ancestry”) and the Hamingja of the Nordics, both being a supernatural form of life connected with the fortune/destiny of a person. The word “fylgja” has the same root of the English word “follow” (from Ancient English “fylgian, fylgan”, with the meaning of “accompany” [referred to a disciple], “moving in the same direction”). The word “hamingja” is composed by “hamr” (“shape”) and the verb “gangr” (“go/walk”) in the sense of “he who walks in the shape/form” (the physical shape/form, i.e. the body), in reference to the memory of what there was of good, noble and honourable in our long gone ancestors, the noble and honourable part that lives on in the ancestry, handed down from body to body, through memory. In addition to the examples described above there are the Fravashi of the Persians and the Ka of the Egyptians. The Fravashi consists in the double of an individual and in his transcendental guardian (identified with the spirit of a dead ancestor). The word “fravashi” is commonly reconstructed as *fravarti, from the root -var (“to choose”), with the meaning of “one who has been selected”: only the child who has been chosen/selected to be reborn will obtain the Fravashi of one of his honourable ancestors. The Ka is also the double of an individual (it was often represented in Egyptian iconography as a second image of the king), it is transmitted from father to son and indicates the life force/spirit of an individual.

Another element to consider is the one related to the concepts of “fate” (in the sense of “predetermined course of life/the individual existence”) and “fame”, words that have the same PIE root *bha- (“to speak, talk, tell”) in reference to the good fame and reputation attributed to someone, fame/reputation that spreads by means of tales, stories and speeches. The concepts of “fate” and “fame” are strongly connected to the mental and spiritual heritage obtained by a descendant after his rebirth in one of his ancestors (in this context, the personal objects with which the deceased was buried are of fundamental importance, because their primary function is to awaken, in the descendant, the memories of his previous lives; the Norse mythology provides us with some excellent examples in this regard: the sword Aettartangi [“hilt of the lineage” or “sword of generations”], endowed with “heill” [the “luck of the lineage”], the armor Finnzleiff and the sword Dáinsleif [“inheritance of Dáinn”, a dwarf whose name means “dead”], whose suffix “-leif” means “inheritance”), the dead person chosen after hearing the honourable tales concerning him, tales handed down from his family and from the members of his tribe. The word “fairy” also have the same PIE root *bha-, and the Italian name of the fairies (“fata/fate”) makes clear the connection that these entities/figures have with destiny. The Parcae (the Roman equivalent of the Moirai of the Greeks, of the Norns of the Nordics and of the Egyptian goddess Neith) were also called Fatae by the Romans, from Latin “fatum” (“destiny”), since the Parcae/Fatae are the entities who preside to destiny: in Rome they were represented inside the Forum by three statues commonly called “Tria Fata” (“The three Fates/Destinies”).

strudwick_-_a_golden_thread

Even the concept of “fortune” falls in the same category of entities, having originally the same meaning of “destiny” as “project, purpose that predetermines the essential course of the individual existence” (and in this context we can remember the Roman goddess Fortuna and the Greek goddesses Ananke [“necessity”] and Tyche [“fortune/luck”], personifications of the concepts of destiny, fate and fortune/lack). Fortunate is the one who owns a destiny, in the sense of he who owns a Spirit, Genius, Daimon, Fylgja, Hamingja, Fravashi or Ka. Unfortunate is the one who doesn’t possess a destiny and is excluded from the eternal cycle of death and rebirth inside the ancestry. Indeed the PIE root of the word “fortune” is *bher- (“to carry”), in the sense of “what is carried/brought on”: what we carry inside us, the honour of the long dead ancestor that we are and that we have inside, that guides us, the ancestor that we have brought back to life in ourselves. Fortune, Destiny, Genius, Daimon, Fylgja, Hamingja, Fravashi, Ka and many other similar entities are all equivalent, their meaning and origin lies in the vision of life of our forebears!

trojeborg_nordisk_familjebok

The Harmony of Opposites

Heraclitus was an enigmatic Greek philosopher, defined because of this as “the obscure”. During his last years of life he became a hermit of the mountains, being an aristocratic spirit that disdained the multitudes: not bad for one who lived in Ancient Greece! He should have seen the world as it is today…

manifestazione_parigi_terrorismo_alto_1_place_de_la_republique_ansa

Anyway, one thing that is clear from the fragments at our disposal is his doctrine concerning the harmony of opposites:

“The opposites concordant, and from the discordant comes beautiful harmony, and everything happens according to contention”.

“The same thing are the living and the dead, the awake and the sleeping, the young and the old: these indeed changing are those and those again changing are these”.

“What is cold becomes hot, what is hot becomes cold, what is moist becomes dry, what is dry becomes moist”.

“Immortal mortals, mortal immortals, living their death and dying their life”.

“One and the same is the path that goes upward and the path that goes down”.

“The same is in fact the beginning and the end in the circumference of the circle”.

“God is day-night, winter-summer, war-peace, satiety-hunger”.

“Junctions are entire-not entire, concordant-discordant, harmonic-disharmonic, and from all things the one and from the one all things”.

Listening not to me, but to the lógos, it is wise to agree that all things are one“.

Heraclitus understood that the Law of the Universe, the Logos (intended as “relation” or “connection”, in reference to the infinite series of relations/connections generated by Nature and operating in it, through the mediation of opposites that alternate), is the relation of contraposition, complementarity, interdependency and alternation between two opposite concepts (being-becoming, one-many, eternity-time, infinite-finite, life-death, past-future, inhalation-exhalation, peace-war, hot-cold, etc.) that are apparently in constant conflict with each other, but in reality, at the same time, they need each other because everything originates from its opposite: the opposites can indeed be defined only for opposition, and they can never be independently determined: nothing would exist if there were not, at the same time, also its opposite.

Note: here lies the meaning of the figure of the Androgynous (from Greek androgynos, composed by andros,”male”, and gyne, “woman”), the complete and undivided being best known for its description given by Plato in the Symposium. The symbolism that lies in this figure refers to the coexistence of opposites and their interdependence, the underlying unity hidden by their apparent separation and opposition: in biological terms it refers to the restoration of the absolute and primordial unity of the being. The coincidentia oppositorum (a Latin phrase meaning “coincidence of opposites”) is the state of being in which the opposites coincide: for example, at the climax of sexual love there is a coincidence between man and woman, a momentary emersion of the androgynous state of being, the erotic impulse having its deepest meaning in the reintegration and reunification of the two divided parts of the human being; this biological coincidence, in specific cases and conditions, allows to momentarily experience a purely spiritual and trascendental state, what in philosophy would consist in the culmination of the metaphysical speculation, namely the inner realization of the coincidence between the concepts of Being and Becoming (therefore two ways of appearing of a single reality), union that results in a single principle, a metaphisical reality that is beyond the opposition between contraries, that in it instead coincide: the Universal Reality.

androgino

If there was no night, what would give us the opportunity to define the day as such? If there was no winter, what would give us the opportunity to define summer as such? If there was no war, what would give us the opportunity to define peace as such? If there was no death, what would give us the opportunity to define life as such? The same on the contrary and for all the opposites that exist. They are two faces of the same coin, bound in the same way as an upward path seems a path that goes down if seen from above.

winter-summer

As it’s evident from the fragments cited above, Heraclitus thought that everything is destined to pass eternally from one state to another: what is cold and becomes hot will cool, what is slow and becomes fast will slow down, what is alive and dies will return to life. I’m alive (again) because I died, and I am destined to die (again) and then to return to life (again), in the same way as I’m awake (again) because I fell asleep, only to be destined to fell asleep (again) and then to return to be awake (again). The end of the circle coincides exactly with its beginning. There is no immobility, only an eternal and unceasing metamorphosis, a current with no beginning and no end, a constant change and transformation: panta rei (“everything flows”). As Heraclitus said: “No man ever steps in the same river twice, for it’s not the same river (in its perennial flow) and he’s not the same man (in his perennial becoming)“.

We can affirm that Heraclitus believed in the immortality and eternal rebirth of the individual spirit: if it is possible to be reborn then it is necessary that the spirit exists (from what we would return to life if not from it that is eternal and immortal, while the body is temporary and mortal?) and that it doesn’t disappear after death, but that it continues to exist even outside the body.

Anyway, we need both the opposites and there will always be both: their result is harmony and equilibrium: war will come after peace but at a certain point there will be peace again, winter will come after summer but at a certain point there will be summer again, etc. In this Heraclitus saw the Logos, the Universal Law of Nature!

hendrik_ter_brugghen_-_heraclitus

Sumerian Mists (Part 3 of 3)

Firstly, an image showing the Cosmos according to the Sumerian mythology:

cosmologia_sumera

There is written, from top to bottom:

Primordial Sea (Nammu)
Sky (An)
Terrestrial Ocean (Abzu)
Earth (Ki)
Hell (Kur)
Primordial Sea (Nammu)

The Primordial Sea/Ocean (Nammu) is the Universe: uncreated, eternal and infinite, enclosing the creatress matter for all that will come into being, primeval amniotic fluid that has given form to all that has been, that is and that will be. The Earth (Ki) is the plane/circle passing through the Ecliptic, and the Zodiac surrounding it. The Terrestrial Ocean (Abzu) is the “whirlpool” produced by the orbits of the other planets of the Solar System. The Sky (An) is the starry sky above/north of the Solar System. Hell (Kur: another proof that the Kur of which I spoke in my previous article is indeed the burial mound/realm of death) is the Starry Sky under/south of the Solar System.

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Finally, the known myth about Baldr’s death: the dreams premonitory of his death, the oath imposed to all living creatures to not harm him, the deities that jokingly try to harm him knowing his invulnerability, his eventual death by the hands of Höðr, the search in Hel to bring him back and the cry of all the living and dead creatures to allow his return to the world of the living.

Baldr’s death:
baldr_lies_dead

The Sumerian mythology contains a poem, called “The Dream of Dumuzi”, strikingly similar in many ways to Baldr’s myth summarized above. In this poem the god Dumuzi has premonitions of his destiny, by dreams showing his upcoming death. He knows he will be killed by a band of brigands but hopes nevertheless to avoid the inevitable and asks all the creatures of nature to cry for him. On several occasions the god is captured by the brigands, but manages to escape. At the end however he seeks refuge in a pen in the desert but the brigands capture him and destiny is fulfilled. After the death of Dumuzi follow the lamentation and Geshtinanna – his sister – starts looking for him in the realm of death, at the end succeeding to bring him back to life.

The similarities with the myth of Baldr’s death are many: already the title of the poem reminds of the “Baldrs Draumar” (“Dreams of Baldr”), then we have the premonitions of death while sleeping, the attempt to avoid death, the participation of all living creatures, the fulfillment of destiny despite the caring to avoid it, and the final search in the realm of death to bring the god back to life. We can quite easily make a parallel between the deities trying more times to harm Baldr until when he eventually dies and the brigands that capture more times Dumuzi without being able to kill him until when they finally succeed in their purpose.

Other equivalent myths are those about the resurrections of Osiris and Lemminkäinen. In the Egyptian mythology, Seth kills Osiris and dismembers his body into fourteen pieces, to then scatter them throughout Egypt. Isis then collects all the body parts and reassembles them, in this way bringing back to life Osiris. In the Kalevala, Lemminkäinen goes to Tuonela – the realm of death – to pass a test and win his wife, but is killed and his body torn to pieces and thrown into the river. Then the mother of Lemminkäinen descends into the underworld and recovers all the parts of his son’s body, reassembles the corpse and brings it back to life.

Lemminkäinen is brought back to life by his mother:
lemminkaisenaiti

Baldr, Dumuzi, Osiris and Lemminkäinen represent both the dead Sun that returns to life after the Winter Solstice (to then increase its radiance up to the Summer Solstice)
and the child that, after completing the initiation ritual, comes out from the burial mound, he too reborn at dawn on Yule/Winter Solstice.

Höðr, Seth and the other entities that kill the Sun God are manifestations of Autumn and Winter, the seasons when – respectively – the Sun grows old and dies.

These comparisons prove even more that the European Religion is born from our blood! The only way our enemies have to destroy it is to exterminate us till the last! Jews, Christians and all their lackeys will fail miserably, as always! Eternity is written in our destiny!

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Part 1: Sumerian Mists (Part 1 of 3)
Part 2: Sumerian Mists (Part 2 of 3)