Eternal Regret (Part 2 of 2)

“What is eternal is circular, what is circular is eternal”.

-Aristotle

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The traditional European vision of life and of time is circular, without a beginning and without an end: a circle that completes its course eternally. An example in support of this: for the ancient Romans the particle “an” meant “circum” (“around”) and from “an” derive the Latin “annus” (“year”), with the meaning of circle, and “annulus” (“ring”), symbol of eternity both for its circularity and the metal to which it is identified, i.e. gold. The year was therefore seen as a circle without beginning and end, not as a finite line, and represented a temporal cycle destined to repeat itself without end.

The Sun, the Moon, the Seasons, the Ice Ages and even the Civilizations: their manifestations are marked by cyclical rhythms. Also men and animals, thanks to their offspring, fall into this universal cyclicity. Everything that in the Universe is animated moves in circular and eternal cycles, this being also the meaning of the swastica/hooked cross (the “wheel of time”) in all its forms and depictions: the four branches symbolize the eternal cyclicity and rebirth of all the powers in the Universe.

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-Winter, Spring, Summer, Autumn and again Winter.
-Nighttime, Morning, Daytime, Evening and again Nighttime.
-New Moon, Rising Moon, Full Moon, Waning Moon and again New Moon.
-Spiritual Life, Rebirth, Life, Death and again Spiritual Life.

“The archaic time is the universe, and as the universe it is circular and definite. Classical antiquity didn’t believe in progress, but in the eternal returns”.

-Giorgio De Santillana

“The conception of time of our ancestors was very different from the modern one, linear and monotonous. They had done of time a structure, a cyclical time, where past and future called each other”.

-Giorgio De Santillana

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Philosophers like Plato and Aristotle saw this as the state of Becoming (state to which belong our body and identifiable with the moon and the four arms/branches of the swastica), characterized by mobility, mutability, temporality and multiplicity. Its inevitable opposite is the state of Being (state to which belong our spirit and identifiable with the sun and the central point of the swastica), characterized by immobility, immutability, eternity and indivisibility. According to them the Becoming is the opposite and reflection of the Being and vice versa, whereby one can not exist without the other, they are two faces of the same reality, just like the waves and the sea are a single water: there are no waves without sea, and there is no sea without waves. The waves are simply sea but despite this live their existence as waves, likewise we are simply part of a single living organism (the Universe) but despite this we live our existence as human beings. The Being is the One (indefinable, because each definition includes an opposite/contrary and is therefore included in the context of multiplicity) of Plato and the Unmoved Mover (“that which moves without being moved”, a concept equivalent to the wei wu wei [“action without action”] of Taoism and to the axis mundi [the motionless center around which revolves the Earth, exactly like, on a bigger scale, the motionless Sun that by means of its gravitational attraction forces the planets of the Solar System to accomplish their motions of revolution around it]) of Aristotle.

Center/Being and Circumference/Becoming:
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Note: the ancient sacred groves (like the Roman lucus and the Celtic nemeton), at whose center there was a circular clearing that allowed the Sun’s rays to penetrate, were a physical image of the metaphysical principles of the center and the circumference

Listening not to me, but to the lógos, it is wise to agree that all things are one“.

-Heraclitus

“And from all things the one and from the one all things”.

-Heraclitus

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Two faces of the same coin but what was the real meaning of those concepts? Maybe they saw the Universe as container and content, as matrix of all that exists and all that exists? Space and Matter being synonyms, the exact same thing, two names for the same reality, each existing as far as the other exists? But in this case it would not really exist only the state of Becoming, independent and unbegotten? Or, on the other hand, exists only the state of Being, past and future (i.e. the Becoming) being nothing but illusory representations of the mind, the present instant being the only true reality?

As Plato understood: time/becoming is the moving image of eternity/being. This seems to be the answer.

***

The Neanderthal man (i.e. the Proto-European) was originally able to fathom and deeply understand eternity and infinity, because he lived only the instant, the true present, elusive for us today. In his perspective “past” and “future” don’t exist, both being born from the finite perspective in which today we found ourselves involved. If you think well about it, past and future really don’t exist, except in our minds as a consequence of the fact that we are trapped in a linear and finite time. The concept of “past” (i.e. imaginary replica/representation) exists but not the past in itself, the concept of “future” (i.e. future projection) exists but not the future in itself: only the “present” exists, the eternal and immutable instant.

However, we can discuss about these concepts but we can’t really understand and grasp their essence: we are stuck with a past, an elusive present and a future as we all intend them (i.e. time and history, because history as we intend it started together with the birth of time, with our transition/fall into a temporal perspective). We are able to briefly experience eternity, I think, only when we remain enthralled by what I would define as platonic ideas. Plato’s ideas are realities having a metaphysical, immutable, eternal, outside of time and archetypical existence (therefore the deities fall into this category when are interpreted as archetypes, role models, stages of life, ideals, etc.), in opposition to the realities having a material, mutable, transient and within time existence: it is in these latter that the ideas manifest themselves. The platonic ideas as ideas in themselves, separated from the beings and vectors in which they manifest, are described in this ancient Chinese text: “Wanting to prove, starting from the idea [in itself] that the ideas [in things] are not at all ideas [in itself], is worth less than wanting to prove starting from the non-idea that the ideas [in themselves] are not the idea [in itself]. Wanting to prove starting from the horse [in general] that [a white] horse is not [a] horse [in general] is worth less than wanting to prove starting from the non-horse that [a white] horse is not [a] horse [in general]”.

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If you’ve ever been in a temporary condition of astonishment, enchantment, metaphysical joy and serenity, characterized by the sensation of being outside of time, followed by a sort of awakening that leaves you with a particular melancholy and the regret for having lost that condition, then you have probably experienced a platonic idea, a particular astonishment due to a metaphysical intuition (“metaphysics” means “the science [i.e. knowledge] of what goes beyond the physical”, in philosophy “the meaning and ultimate principle of the ideas”). It’s something that happens briefly and quite unconsciously, without really realizing it, often while looking intensely at something or someone. I’m not able to explain it in a better way!

Part 1: Eternal Regret (Part 1 of 2)

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The Harmony of Opposites

Heraclitus was an enigmatic Greek philosopher, defined because of this as “the obscure”. During his last years of life he became a hermit of the mountains, being an aristocratic spirit that disdained the multitudes: not bad for one who lived in Ancient Greece! He should have seen the world as it is today…

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Anyway, one thing that is clear from the fragments at our disposal is his doctrine concerning the harmony of opposites:

“The opposites concordant, and from the discordant comes beautiful harmony, and everything happens according to contention”.

“The same thing are the living and the dead, the awake and the sleeping, the young and the old: these indeed changing are those and those again changing are these”.

“What is cold becomes hot, what is hot becomes cold, what is moist becomes dry, what is dry becomes moist”.

“Immortal mortals, mortal immortals, living their death and dying their life”.

“One and the same is the path that goes upward and the path that goes downward”.

“The same are in fact the beginning and the end in the circumference of the circle”.

“God is day-night, winter-summer, war-peace, satiety-hunger”.

“Junctions are entire-not entire, concordant-discordant, harmonic-disharmonic, and from all things the one and from the one all things”.

Listening not to me, but to the lógos, it is wise to agree that all things are one“.

Heraclitus understood that the Law of the Universe, the Logos (intended as “relation” or “connection”, in reference to the infinite series of relations/connections generated by Nature and operating in it, through the mediation of opposites that alternate), is the relation of contraposition, complementarity, interdependency and alternation between two opposite concepts (being-becoming, one-many, eternity-time, infinite-finite, life-death, past-future, inhalation-exhalation, peace-war, hot-cold, etc.) that are apparently in constant conflict with each other, but in reality, at the same time, need each other because everything originates from its opposite: the opposites can indeed be defined only for opposition, and they can never be independently determined; nothing would exist if there was not, at the same time, also its opposite.

Note: here lies the meaning of the figure of the Androgynous (from Greek androgynos, composed by andros, “man”, and gyne, “woman”), the complete and undivided being best known for its description made by Plato in the Symposium. The symbolism inherent in this figure refers to the coexistence of opposites and their interdependence, the underlying unity hidden by their apparent separation and opposition: in biological terms it refers to the restoration of the absolute and primordial unity of the being. The coincidentia oppositorum (a Latin phrase meaning “coincidence of opposites”) is the state of being in which the opposites coincide: for example, at the climax of sexual love occurs a coincidence between man and woman, a momentary emersion of the androgynous state of being, the erotic impulse having its deepest meaning in the reintegration and reunification of the two divided parts of the human being; this biological coincidence, in specific cases and conditions, allows to momentarily experience a purely spiritual and trascendent state, what in philosophy would consist in the culmination of the metaphysical speculation, namely the inner realization of the coincidence between the concepts of Being and Becoming (that are therefore two ways of appearing of a single reality), union that results in a single principle, a metaphisical reality that is beyond the opposition between contraries, that in it instead coincide: the Universal Reality.

androgino

If there was no night, what would give us the opportunity to define day as such? If there was no winter, what would give us the opportunity to define summer as such? If there was no war, what would give us the opportunity to define peace as such? If there was no death, what would give us the opportunity to define life as such? The same on the contrary and for all the opposites that exist, they are two faces of the same coin, bound in the same way as an uphill path seems a downhill path if seen from above.

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As it’s evident from the fragments cited above, Heraclitus thought that everything is destined to pass eternally from one state of the being to another: what is cold and becomes hot will cool, what is slow and becomes fast will slow down, what is alive and dies will return to life. I’m alive (again) because I died, and I am destined to die (again) and then to return to life (again), in the same way as I’m awake (again) because I fell asleep, only to be destined to fell asleep (again) and then return to be awake (again). The end of the circle coincides exactly with its beginning. There is no immobility, only an eternal and unceasing metamorphosis, a current with no beginning and no end, a constant change and transformation: panta rei (“everything flows”). As Heraclitus said: “No man ever steps in the same river twice, for it’s not the same river (in its perennial flow) and he’s not the same man (in his perennial becoming)“.

We can affirm that Heraclitus believed in the immortality and eternal rebirth of the individual spirit: if it is possible to be reborn then it is necessary that the spirit exists (from what we would return to life if not from it that is eternal and immortal, while the body is temporary and mortal?) and that it doesn’t disappear after death, but that instead it continues to exist even outside the body.

Anyway, we need both the opposites and there will always be both: their result is harmony and equilibrium: after peace will come war but at a certain point there will be peace again, after summer will come winter but at a certain point there will be summer again, etc. In this flux Heraclitus saw the Logos, the Universal Law of Nature!

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Eternal Regret (Part 1 of 2)

“Lives eternal he one who lives in the present”.

-Ludwig Wittgenstein

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Eternity (the term derives from the Latin locution “ex” (outside) and from “ternum” (triple/triad), i.e. “outside the triad [of time]”: past, present and future) consists on one side in a perpetual flow of time, without beginning and without end, on the other in the atemporal point that we call instant (the Parmenidean being is nothing else than the instant), that is outside of time and coincides with the real present, of which we can’t have experience; an instant proceeds without interruption to another instant, they add up over time but they remain elusive for us; it is we who are in motion while the instant is immutable, even if it seems to shift, as the apparent motion of the Sun; the elusive and uninterrupted flow of instants constitutes the course of time, which is an illusion, since there is nothing but the endless eternity, whereby:

“Time is the moving image of eternity”.

– Plato

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***

Once, we fathomed eternity: both as infinite temporal duration and as timelessness. Too much time has passed since we have only been able to speculate about it, only able to see the door of eternity from a more or less favorable position, with the silly illusion of being able to reach its handle. The same applies to the concept of infinity, we are no longer able to deeply understand and fathom the infinity of the Universe. Only a finite space is within the reach of our minds.

It’s exactly here that lies the meaning of what Mircea Eliade called “nostalgia for paradise”, being nothing but the nostalgia for the Golden Age (i.e. the primordial state in which we fathomed eternity, since gold is a symbol of the metaphysical concept of the “being”, which is not subject to the laws of the temporal becoming), the aspiration to regain an existence outside of time, as when men were unaware of it and, consequently, free from the terror and anguish of history. Here lies one of the deeper meanings of all religions, one of their most important functions (achieved through initiations, rituals, ceremonies and festivities) being that of creating the momentary illusion that we are living once again that lost primordial condition to which we can not help but aspire, as a heartbreaking necessity that, if not satisfied, leads us to despair.

***

If every now and then you find yourselves immersed in similar thoughts, then maybe you will suffer, consequently, a sort of metaphysical vertigo/desperation: it’s the only way you have to find the answers you need, the only way to reawaken yourselves!

Eternal and Infinite, this is the Universe!

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When Trees don’t fear Death

Many European Traditionalists love to read books. We read to try to know and understand our past, our ancestors, our traditions, our history and in one sentence: who we are mentally, physically and spiritually. Not least, also to avoid this modern world so unnatural and just not made for us: it is made for the totally domesticated man.

Here I want to share with you a list of essential books that you should read to understand who you really are:

MYTHOLOGY AND FAIRY TALES:

Apollodorus of Athens – Bibliotheca.

Homer – Iliad, – Odyssey.

Apollonius Rhodius – Argonautica.

Ovid – Metamorphoses.

Virgil – Aeneid.

Snorri Sturluson – Prose Edda.

The Poetic Edda.

The Kalevala.

The Egyptian Book of the Dead.

The Epic of Gilgamesh.

The Táin Bó Cúailnge.

The Mabinogion.

The Matter of Britain.

All European Fairy Tales – (Grimm, Andersen, Pitré…).

Varg Vikernes & Marie Cachet – Paganism Explained.

Marie Cachet – The Secret of the She-Bear.

Varg Vikernes – Reflections on European Mythology and Polytheism, – Sorcery and Religion in Ancient Scandinavia.

Richard B. Onians – The Origins of European Thought.

James G. Frazer – The Golden Bough.

Vladimir Propp – The Historical Roots of Fairy Tales.

Arnold Van Gennep – The Rites of Passage.

Carlo Ginzburg – Ecstasies.

Massimo Conese – Nati con la Camicia.

Károly Kerényi – The Heroes and Gods of the Greeks, – Nel Labirinto.

Robert Graves – The Greek Myths.

Gianna Chiesa Isnardi – I Miti Nordici.

Andrea Verdecchia – I Miti Italici.

Massimo Dall’Agnola – Mitologia e Dèi dell’Antico Egitto.

Mircea Eliade – Patterns in Comparative Religion, – A History of Religious Ideas.

Julius Evola – Revolt Against the Modern World, – The Mystery of the Grail, – The Hermetic Tradition, – The Metaphysics of Sex.

Mario Polia – Il Mistero Imperiale del Graal.

Philippe Walter – Artù, – Christian Mythology.

Giorgio De Santillana – Hamlet’s Mill.

Nuccio D’Anna – Il Gioco Cosmico.

WESTERN PHILOSOPHY:

Heraclitus – Fragments.

Parmenides – On the Order of Nature.

Plato – Dialogues.

Epictetus – The Enchiridion.

Marcus Aurelius – Meditations.

Seneca – Letters from a Stoic, – Dialogues.

Enrico Berti – In Principio era la Meraviglia.

Erwin Rohde – Psyche.

Pierre Hadot – The Inner Citadel, – The Veil of Isis.

Marie Cachet – Le Besoin d’Impossible.

EASTERN PHILOSOPHY:

The Bhagavadgītā.

The Zhuangzi.

The Tao Te Ching.

PREHISTORY AND HISTORY:

B.G. Tilak – La Dimora Artica nei Veda.

Jean Manco – Ancestral Journeys.

Mirella Cipolloni Sampò – Dolmen.

Gualtiero Ciola – Noi, Celti e Longobardi.

Michel Pastoureau – Medioevo Simbolico.

Military History: The Definitive Visual Guide to the Objects of Warfare.

MODERN WORLD:

Corneliu Z. Codreanu – For My Legionaries.

Oswald Spengler – The Decline of the West.

Julius Evola – Ride the Tiger, – Men Among the Ruins.

Réne Guénon – The Crisis of the Modern World.

Nico Merz – The Awakening of Europeans.

George Orwell – 1984.

FANTASY:

J.R.R. Tolkien – The Hobbit, – The Lord of the Rings, – The Silmarillion.

Robert E. Howard – Conan the Barbarian.

Hurry up, before they are censored!

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