Eternal Regret (Part 2 of 2)

“What is eternal is circular, what is circular is eternal”.



The traditional European vision of life and time is circular, without a beginning and an end: a circle that repeats its course eternally. In this regard we can remember that for the ancient Romans the particle “an” meant “circum” (“around”) and from “an” derive the Latin “annulus” (“ring”), whose shape symbolizes the eternal circularity of time, and “annus” (“year”), that was therefore understood as a circle without beginning and end, not as a finite line, and consisted in an annular temporal cycle destined to repeat itself perennially.

The Sun, the Moon, the Seasons, the Ice Ages and even the Civilizations, their manifestations are marked by cyclical rhythms and the same universal cyclicity applies to men and animals. All that exists moves in circular and eternal cycles, this being also the meaning of the swastica (some of its appellatives are “wheel of time”, “wheel of life” and “wheel of destiny”) in all its forms and representations: its four branches symbolize the eternal cyclicity and rebirth that mark all that has life in the Universe.


-Winter, Spring, Summer, Autumn and again Winter.
-Night, Morning, Day, Evening and again Night.
-New Moon, Rising Moon, Full Moon, Waning Moon and again New Moon.
-Spiritual Life, Rebirth, Life, Death and again Spiritual Life.

“The archaic time is the universe, and like the universe it is circular and definite. Classical antiquity didn’t believe in progress, but rather in eternal returns”.

-Giorgio De Santillana

“The concept of time of our ancestors was very different from the modern one, linear and monotonous. They made of time a structure, a cyclical time, where past and future called each other”.

-Giorgio De Santillana


Plato and Aristotle defined what we have described above as the state of Becoming (state to which belong our body and identifiable with the Moon and the four branches of the swastica), characterized by mobility, mutability, temporality and multiplicity, equivalent to the Indian concept of the Saṃsāra; its inevitable opposite consisted in the state of Being (state to which belong our spirit and identifiable with the Sun and the central point of the swastica), characterized by immobility, immutability, eternity and oneness, equivalent to the Indian concept of the Nirvāṇa. The Becoming would be the opposite and reflection of the Being and vice versa, two faces of the same reality just like the waves and the sea are a single mass of water, whereby one can not exist without the other: there are no waves without sea and there is no sea without waves, the waves are just sea but despite this they exist as waves, analogously we are simply part of a single living organism, the Universe, but despite this we live our individual existences as human beings. The Being is the One of Plato and the Unmoved Mover (“that which moves without being moved”, a concept equivalent to the wei wu wei [“action without action”] of Taoism and to the axis mundi [some examples: the motionless axial center around which revolves the Earth, the motionless Pole Star around which revolve the circumpolar constellations, the motionless Sun that by means of its gravitational attraction forces the planets of the Solar System to accomplish their motions of revolution around it]) of Aristotle.

Center/Being and Circumference/Becoming:

Note: the ancient sacred groves, like the Roman lucus and the Celtic nemeton, at whose center there was a circular clearing that allowed the Sun’s rays to penetrate, were a physical image of the metaphysical principles of the center and the circumference. 

“For those who listen not me, but the lógos, is wise to agree that everything is one“.


“And from all things the one and from the one all things”.



Therefore two faces of the same coin which complement each other harmoniously, the Universe understood at the same time as container and content, as matrix of all that exists and all that exists, space and matter being synonyms and existing each to the extent that the other exists, the same identical reality observed from different perspectives: then exists really only the Becoming, independent and unbegotten, or only the Being, past and future being nothing but illusory representations created by the mind to compensate the ungraspability of the instant? It seems that the answer, paraphrasing Plato, is this: the Becoming is the moving image of the Being.

The concepts of “past” and “future” exist, if understood respectively as imaginary projection in the past and imaginary projection in the future, but past and future in themselves don’t exist, except in our minds because of the fact that we have been subjected to a sort of metaphysical fall that made us transit toward a temporal existential condition, and a deep comprehension and experience of the eternal, atemporal, motionless and immutable present instant has been precluded us. Maybe we are able to experience eternity, understood as atemporality, only when we remain enthralled by what I would define as platonic ideas, realities having a metaphysical, immutable, eternal, atemporal and archetypical existence, in opposition to the realities having a material, mutable, transient and temporal: it’s in the latter that, although without reaching the ideal perfection proper to the exemplary model, the platonic ideas manifest and incarnate themselves.


“Wanting to prove, starting from the idea [in itself] that the ideas [in things] are not at all ideas [in themselves], is worth less than wanting to prove starting from the non-idea that the ideas [in themselves] are not the idea [in itself]. Wanting to prove starting from the horse [in general] that [a white] horse is not [a] horse [in general] is worth less than wanting to prove starting from the non-horse that [a white] horse is not [a] horse [in general]”.


Risultati immagini per zhuangzi painting

If you’ve ever been in a condition of momentary metaphysical astonishment, enchantment and serenity, characterized by the sensation of being outside of time and followed by a sort of awakening that leaves you with an unusual melancholy and the regret for having lost that particular condition, then you have probably experienced a platonic idea, a metaphysical intuition (the word “metaphysics” means “the science of what goes beyond the physical”) that manifests itself almost unconsciously, without having a real awareness of it.

Part 1: Eternal Regret (Part 1 of 2)


Different Minds, different Skies

“When men see these spectacles, they believe that certainly the gods exist and that these great wonders are the work of the gods”.


Immagine correlata

During antiquity and prehistory we had exactly the same astronomical knowledge that we possess today, but when the Judeo-Christians invaded us – killing our ancestors by the millions and destroying or giving to the flames every manifestation of our culture on which they laid their eyes – they forced on our minds the “fact” that our planet would actually be flat, at the center of the Sky and that if we had reached its limits we would have ended up falling into the abyss. Those who opposed, like Galileo Galilei that affirmed the Heliocentric System, were labeled as heretics and forced to publicly reject their knowledge if they didn’t want to be sended to the stake: this when they were not preventively silenced by means of threats and tortures. Anyhow the Renaissance came and we returned, for the desperation of the Judeo-Christians, to our ancient science: if it was for them we should still believe in the lies they promoted, today and in the future as well, until the coming of their fictional Armageddon.

At that point they tried to hammer in the heads of the Europeans the fact that also our ancestors thinked that the Earth was flat: “even the pagans believed to this, it was not a consequence of the wave of destruction and ignorance we brought in Europe! Oy vey!”. Then they started their distortion, corruption and willed misinterpretation of our mythologies, and today the Europeans generally think that our ancestors were indeed ignorant in this regard, and this would be proved by the fact that our mythologies tell all sort of things about the planet where we live but none of them comes close to the truth.


In this context one of the most exploited and abused figures is the one of Oceanus, a deity of the Greek mythology that according to the Judeo-Christians would have symbolized the waters that surrounded our flat planet, delimiting the borders beyond which we would have fallen into cosmic space: that’s what they think.

How the Judeo-Christians see the Earth and Oceanus:

Now it’s time to look at the figure of Oceanus, called Ægir (“[metaphysical] scare”, “awe”) in the Norse mythology, in a European perspective:

According to the Egyptian mythology everything came into being from Nun (defined “the watery abyss of the sky” and “the father of the gods”), the primeval ocean, primordial matrix whose creative power gave rise to all existing forms of life, eternal and infinite space that represented what we today call “Universe”: the archaic thinking associated the concept of water to that of source of life and essence of purification and regeneration, with particular reference to the amniotic fluid, indeed, at the same time, the Nun is described as a river that flows through the realm of the dead, whom, after diving into it, are resurrected.

I quote some significant passages of an Egyptian sacred text:

“Here I am,
I that, swelling and overflowing the Abysses,
I generated, from them, the Waters of the Sky…
These waters, made me float on their liquid Spaces…
And that is why they remain in my power,
The Waters of the Sky!”.

-The Egyptian Book of the Dead

“Since this Earth has appeared
At the Dawn of Times, in the Ocean of the Sky,
Rising from the Primordial Chaos…”.

-The Egyptian Book of the Dead

“I lean on the forehead of Ra
And I sail on the heavenly Ocean
Seated in peace, on the prow of his ship…”.

-The Egyptian Book of the Dead

“Look! He is alone in the middle of the heavenly Ocean
While he crosses the Horizon!”.

-The Egyptian Book of the Dead

Oceanus, the only one that could stand apart when Zeus demanded the presence of the gods in Olympus, was described as “tireless”, “deep”, “fluent”, “refluent on itself”, “with no waves”, “origin of everything”, “origin of the gods”: it is the infinite space that encircles the Solar System, i.e. the Universe; it is tireless, fluent and refluent (term that suggests a rotation) on itself because even the fixed stars were moving at the eyes of our ancestors, apparently and very slowly because of the precession of the equinoxes, a motion of our planet that they knew perfectly; it is deep because the Universe is spatially infinite; it is without waves because it has nothing to do with water as we understand it and because the apparent motion of the fixed stars is inexorable but almost imperceptible; it is the origin of everything because the Universe at the same time is and contains all that exists, has given rise to all that has been, that is and that will be; it is the origin of the gods because without the Universe the Solar System would not exist, here “gods” referring to the “inhabitants” of the Solar System, i.e. those planets that since their first identification were called with the names of the deities; it is the only one not forced to go to Olympus, i.e. the Sun, at the call of Zeus because only the planets of the Solar System are “forced” to head towards the Sun, being inexorably attracted by its gravitational force.

<<But>>, say the Judeo-Christians, <<it encircles the Earth>>!

The “earth” of the myths is sometimes described as a plane, yes, but it is not our planet, it is instead the ideal plane passing through the four pillars or corners of the year, marked by the equinoxes and solstices, i.e. the ecliptic, and precisely this is the meaning concealed by the mythologies that describe a flat and/or quadrangular “earth”: the four pillars or corners that determine it are the four zodiacal constellations that appear behind the Sun in the days of the equinoxes and solstices.

Note: the combined attraction force of the Sun and Moon, in relation to the fact that the Earth doesn’t have a perfectly spherical shape, has as consequence the phenomenon of the precession of the equinoxes, consisting in the spatial movement of the Earth’s axis with respect to a reference point in the fixed stars. This motion of our planet is very similar to the movement made by the axis of a top that is about to stop: because of the action of an external force and the motion caused by it the rotation axis rotates around another imaginary axis, tracing two symmetrical cones in the space. The duration of a precessional cycle, equivalent to the time that the Earth’s axis takes to accomplish a complete rotation, is of about 25.776 years: the most relevant consequences of this planetary motion are the movement of the celestial pole – with the consequent change of the pole star that indicates it – and of the points of the Earth’s orbit along the ecliptic – hence with respect to the fixed stars – in which occur the equinoxes and solstices (because of the precession the tropical year – the time taken by the Sun to return on the same equinoctial or solstitial point – turns out each year shorther than the sidereal year – the time taken by the Sun to return on the same position with respect to the fixed stars – of about 50.26″ clockwise, in the opposite direction to the counterclockwise one followed by the Sun in its apparent annual path, i.e. towards the spatial position where the previous constellation of the zodiac is located: over the millennia all the zodiacal signs slowly, relentlessly and cyclically followed each other behind the rising Sun in the days of the equinoxes and solstices), determining each year a small temporal advance in the succession of the seasons. In leap years one more day is intercalated precisely in relation to the phenomenon of the precession, so as to keep aligned the astronomical moments of the equinoxes and solstices with the calendar dates of reference. To pass entirely through any of the twelve zodiacal constellations, each of which occupies 30° along the ecliptic, the Sun takes about 2.148 years, therefore all twelve constellations, equivalent to the 360° of the ecliptic, are travelled in the course of the about 25.776 years that make up a complete precessional cycle. The ecliptic and the zodiac are inclined of 23.5° with respect to the equator (the myths that describe the sudden separation of the earth from the sky, simultaneously to the conclusion of the golden age, may refer to the separation of the ecliptic from the equator consequently to the inclination [the etymology of the Greek word “klima” means “inclination”] of the Earth’s axis: from the eternal and atemporal spring of the beginnings we were condemned to the yoke of the cyclical and temporal succession of the seasons): the half north of the equator – containing six zodiacal constellations and extending spatially from the vernal equinox to the autumnal equinox passing through the summer solstice – was archaically conceived as “emerged earth” whereas the half south of the equator – containing the other six zodiacal constellations and extending spatially from the autumnal equinox to the vernal equinox passing through the winter solstice – was conceived as “submerged earth”; the new constellation that rose behind the Sun in the day of the vernal equinox “emerged from the waters” whereas on the opposite side the constellation that ceased to mark the autumnal equinox sank under the equator and was “submerged” (only the equinoctial points acted as a symbolic reference since they result from the intersection of the ecliptic with the equator). After about 12.900 years from the beginning of a precessional cycle the position of the equinoxes and solstices reverses because of the diametrically opposite inclination attained by the Earth’s axis, with the result that the northern and southern hemispheres swap places in relation to the cyclical succession of the seasons.

Immagine correlata

Now, the Universe encircles the ecliptic, encircles the Solar System, right?

Note: the prehistoric engravings with the form of a spiral may also depict a celestial maelstrom, the cosmic mill or vortex (in the Norse mythology the etymology of Iðavöllr may mean “plain of splendour” or also “swirling field”) that dictates the rhythms of the celestial clock? The maelstrom (the first part of the name is connected to the verb “mala”, etymologically “to grind”, perhaps in reference to the “grinding” of the eras as a consequence of the inexorable current of time and cosmic cycles) is known as the “navel of the sea”, and from a cosmic point of view “navel” would be a reference to the axial and gravitational center and “sea” a reference to the waters of the cosmic ocean which dance vortically around the aforesaid center, respectively the Pole Star and the Sun in reference to the circumpolar constellations and the planets of the Solar System.

spirals_01Risultati immagini per vortex of stars around north pole

Moreover, in the Iliad the shield that Hephaestus builds for Achilles is described in these terms:

“…the Pleiades, the Hyades and the strength of Orion
and the Great Bear, that they call with the name of Wagon:
she turns on itself and watches Orion,

and only her has no part in the washings of Oceanus”.

In the Odyssey, Odysseus pays attention to the stars that Calypso advises him to follow:

“…staring at the Pleiades, staring at Boötes that sets late,
and at the Great Bear, that they call also with the name of Wagon,
and always she turns and fearful watches Orion,
and only her has no part in the washings of Oceanus”.

Ursa Major is composed by the seven shiny stars that give shape to its constellation and is a circumpolar constellation, thus always present above the horizon, that never sets in the course of the apparent motion of rotation of the Sky: it is thus visible during all the year in the Northern Hemisphere and never sets north of the 41° North, latitude of Madrid and Naples.

The fact that Ursa Major doesn’t participate in the washings of Oceanus is enough to understand that Oceanus is up high, is the Universe, “the watery abyss of the sky”!