Sacred Kingship

“In my lineage there is the majesty of kings, who excel in power among men, and the sacredness of the gods, who have the power of kings in their hands”.

-Julius Caesar

After the conclusion of the last glaciation (about 12.000 years ago) our ancestors gradually became sedentary and formed throughout Europe tribal societies based on the concept of blood and soil.

All these archaic societies were ruled by a Sacred King – a living symbol of the Sky, of the Sun and of the metaphysical principle defined with the term Being – and a Sacred Queen – a living symbol of the Earth, of the Moon and of the metaphysical principle defined with the term Becoming. Related examples can be found, at the level of folklore, in the traditional European fairy tales and celebrations where a sleeping maiden is awakened by the kiss of a prince, an act that symbolizes the awakening of Nature in Spring, when the rays of the Sun kisses and fecundate the Earth.

Sleeping Beauty:
blascosbkissx

Sacred King and Sacred Queen together represented a complementary duality, and during their symbolic wedding occurred the sacred union between the Sky God/Sun God and the Earth Goddess/Moon Goddess, i.e. the metaphysical conjunction of the opposites.

sole_e_luna

The Sacred King was especially associated with the Sun and consequently he embodied the power of the celestial body that illuminates the world and gives life: an example of such an archetypal figure can be found in the Arthurian Cycle, where the strenght of the knight Gawain continues to increase from dawn to noon, to then gradually decrease until sunset: just like the strenght of the Sun in its various phases.

sir20gawaine20200

That’s the reason why in the archaic societies was customary the prohibition to look the Sacred King in the face, in the same way as it isn’t possible to stare at the Sun without risking of becoming blind, and in his presence all had to kneel and stare at the ground.

The fact that the very existence of the Sacred King was identified with the annual path of the Sun in the Sky explains why he was subject to a ritual killing at the end of his annual function, on the day of the Winter Solstice, when the Sun dies and is reborn at the same time: only then his successor, previously selected, was crowned, raised to royal dignity and celebrated.

monte_croccia_opt

Examples of ritual death of the Sacred King can be found in the myths about Achilles and Krishna: they both die after having been hit at the heel by an arrow (poisoned in the actual ritual), in their only vulnerable spot, the tendon of the foot, part of the body that has the same symbolic meaning of the femur, because the tendons allow the muscular movement of the body, i.e. they allow life. The death of Achilles and Krishna is concretely and symbolically associated with a part of the human body that was synonymous of life (but they will come back to life when their femur will be recovered by a divine child that will enter in their grave).

7204026468_1b0cbf0e89_b

Over the course of time every archaic society altered, for various reasons, the conclusion of the Sacred King’s annual function, and the ancestral tradition manifested itself in new forms. In some cases the Sacred King staged an apparent death, isolating himself in a symbolic grave, while a substitute obtained his divine role during that last day of reign, to then be ritually killed: at that point the real Sacred King returned to life from his symbolic grave; in other cases a totemic animal took the place of the Sacred King on the sacrificial altar; in other cases was torn down a wood effigy that represented the Sacred King; in these three scenarios the Sacred King in charge could confirm his role or give it up in the course of a selective competition. Eventually the Sacred King simply refused to be killed or replaced, and thanks to his authority, his power and the support of his faithful, managed to extend his divine mandate indefinitely, until his death, whether natural or not, and this particular deviation from the original procedure influenced and molded considerably the institution of kingship during Antiquity and the Middle Ages.

pendragon

In the most archaic societies both the Sacred King and the Sacred Queen were annually selected (a tradition whose vestiges could still be found at the times of the Roman Republic, when two Consuls were elected together each year): these divine roles were assigned to those who proved to be superior in various annual competitions able to determine the strenght, beauty, health, wisdom, skills and, generally speaking, the male and female qualities and peculiarities of the candidates. In this context we can remember the Ancient Olympic Games, that consisted originally in religious ceremonies (over time degenerated into simple sport events without any higher meaning) having the purpose to annually select – through a footrace between young women – the one who would symbolically incarnate Hera (the Earth Goddess, i.e. the Sacred Queen) and – through a footrace between young men – the one who would symbolically incarnate Zeus (the Sky God, i.e. the Sacred King): every year the Sacred Queen and the Sacred King had to confirm their role or pass the baton to those who proved to be more worthy.

a_torch_race

Things changed with the subsequent distinction in matriarchal and patriarchal societies:

In the matriarchal societies the first daughter of the Queen was a Princess who inherited the title at birth, while her future groom (and future King, after spending some time as a Prince) was selected among men from other tribes or lands; in these societies the most ambitious sons of the King and the Queen will go to other lands in order to marry a Princess or a Queen and become themselves Kings (a recurring pattern in myths [some examples: the chariot race between Pelops and Oenomaus to win the hand of Hippodamia and the archery competition between Odysseus and the Proci to win the hand of Penelope] and fairy tales).

Odysseus during the archery competition against the Proci:
bowcontest

In the patriarchal socities the first son of the King was a Prince who inherited the title at birth, while his future bride (and future Queen, after spending some time as a Princess) was chosen/selected among young girls from other tribes or lands (a recurring pattern in myths [an example: the judgement of Paris to decide which goddess was the most beautiful between Aphrodite, Hera and Athena] and fairy tales).

The Judgement of Paris:
orig_aphrodite_is_being_surveyed_by_paris2c_while_athena_28the_leftmost_figure29_and_hera_stand_by_

In these societies the King and the Queen will try to marry their daughters with Princes or Kings from other tribes or lands, in order to tie them to a royal bloodline but often also to stipulate alliances or to obtain advantages of other sort.

“The King is dead, long live the King!”

Advertisements

Words of Wisdom #62

“<<Let me point out>> said Yuan Xian <<that being devoid of goods means only to be poor. Being miserable means not being able to put into practice your own knowledge. I am poor, but not miserable>>. Zi-gang stepped back blushing. Yuan Xian added while laughing: <<Acting to please the world, being everyone’s friend, studying to become someone, teaching for selfish purposes, doing evil under the cover of goodness and equity, walking in sumptuous crews, these are the things that I will never accept to do>>”.

-Zhuangzi

74d5d330a8d4a3ee206f474c1c3d2d33

About Zeus and Typhon

Varg Vikernes has made a video where he talks about the femur (for our ancestors a symbol of movement and thus of the life force) in relation to the prehistoric burial mounds and the initiatory ritual of rebirth that took place inside them. In this article I will try to unveil the symbolic relation between these archaeological finds and the myth of the battle between Zeus and Typhon.

***

Typhon was a monstrous creature described in different ways by the various ancient sources, but generally speaking he was a gigantic winged monster with an at least partially serpentine shape.

Typhon:
726px-typhon_staatliche_antikensammlungen_596

Without venturing into what would be a complicated analysis, I can simplify by saying that for me Typhon is a symbolic incarnation of Death. In the mythical tale Zeus figths with Typhon and tries to kill him, but the monster manages to sever the tendons of Zeus’s hands and feet, therefore immobilizing the god. The key in this context is to understand that the tendons fulfill the same symbolic function of the femur in relation to the ability to move and to the life force of an individual: the tendons perform in the myth the same role that the femur performs in the ritual. Zeus is immobilized, alive but at the same time symbolically dead, awaiting his rebirth (i.e. awaiting to regain the ability to move), exactly like the divine ancestor inside the burial mound.

It will not surprise the fact that at that point Typhon will bring Zeus inside a cave (i.e. the burial mound), where he will hide the tendons of the god inside a bear’s skin (an extremely archaic symbolism that comes directly from the primordial Bear Cult practiced by the Neanderthals long before the end of the last Ice Age). The cave (i.e. the womb of the earth) is the Korykion Antron (from korykos, “knapsack”) and is protected by the dragoness Delphyne (from delphys, “womb”).

The Korykion Antron:
img0039big
from-the-back-of-the

The korykos (“knapsack”):
gravidanza_thinkstockphotos-166132487

But finally Hermes (the Greek word hermaion defined both a fortunate man and a pile of stones [perhaps originally in reference to the dolmens, i.e. the burial mounds?]) manages to break into che cave (he is a psychopomp god with the privilege of being able to access and return freely from the realm of death) and to recover the precious tendons: in this way Zeus regains the ability to move (i.e. he returns to life after an apparent and symbolic death) and defeats Typhon (i.e. Death) once and for all; the divine child (i.e. Hermes/Odin) has found the femur of his ancestor inside the mound, and by means of an initiatory ritual has reached a superior and transcendent spiritual stage: he remembers and is aware of his previous existences and consciences, which now are, at the same time, distinct and unified realities in the shape of this reborn divine being.

Related post: He who makes the Sky tremble

Dark Quarterer

In 1988 Gianni Nepi (voice and bass), Fulberto Serena (guitar) and Paolo Ninci (drum) released “The Etruscan Prophecy”, the second album of their heavy metal band Dark Quarterer. I propose you to listen to these two beautiful songs taken from that album, while reflecting at the same time on the deep meanings of the lyrics:

“Walking in the night
across the silent oak forest
we are crying for your life man
I feel their presence all around me
in the odour of earth
we are living and we will return
when the oppressor’s hand is over your heads
Waiting for his axe blows
to feel our last trees
we don’t want him to destroy our sons
he will pay for all the evil done to the world
Look at the sky it’s grey
no flying birds move the air
no sun ray warms your skin
no moon for dreaming, loving
and death kills life
day after day
and your eyes are tired
of seeing mistakes everywhere
and to be fooled by continuous lies
The first clods now start to move
the first fists are free from earth
and rage and war cries fill the air
rage to revenge their ancient world
cries to destroy who all destroyed
and armed fists to crush his head
Everywhere you feel their steps
you feel their breath
as a wolf looking for his prey
they chase him
and the night will be so long
and the night will be so strong
until the last verdict be given
And the sky is blue again
and the birds are flying free
and the sun rays warm your skin
on the last page
first love words will move the air
the first dream will come true till the end of time”.

“The idol eyes of stone
you see are cold and old
have no expression no
don’t scare anyone
now the wood of the cross is splintering
in this time old man’s mind don’t teach anymore
the child disowns his blood
this wind is corroding even the hardest rock
and it will sweep the sand away
The mire of the bog is sticking on your tired arms
the putrid air doesn’t let your breath is deep
your eyes see far
remains of life ill and feeble
skeletons of trees are keepers of nothing
remains of nature that’s already dead
The night of thoughts will be so long
will be so dark
don’t try to find in the air the flight of doves or vultures
set your teeth and go on! go! go! don’t yield to fate
bite your lips and stand up don’t stop don’t surrender
you too
not now that you feel you are so near
so near the light of life
You know the way will be so difficult to find
every temptation to turn back so difficult to beat
don’t get it wrong
you can’t lose yourself
you are the fire against the ice
you are the day against the night
Somewhere someone is feeling your deeper thoughts
your bodies are vibrating
a thousand souls are one soul
angels of mire try to clean your wings
you, angels of mire try at least once to fly
and forever that wind will be ruled by you”.

Related post: Ascent of the Spirit

Words of Wisdom #60

“My heart of silk
is filled with lights,
with lost bells,
with lilies and bees.
I will go very far,
farther than those hills,
farther than the seas,
close to the stars,
to beg Christ the Lord
to give back the soul I had
of old, when I was a child,
ripened with legends,
with a feathered cap
and a wooden sword”.

-Federico García Lorca

fg-lorca

Some Cases of Burial Mounds (Part 3 of 3)

Troy, also called Ilion, is both an ancient historical city and a mythical city, precisely the theater of the Trojan War in the Iliad. However, the Troy of the renowned epic poem is a symbolical city and it represents the burial mound, i.e. the realm of death.

Since ancient times the name “Troy” has been associated with labyrinths, and the prehistoric European symbol of the labyrinth is a figure that symbolizes the grave of the honourable ancestor. For example, several turf mazes (structures shaped like a labyrinth) in England were named “Troy”, “Troy Town”, “The City of Troy” or “The Walls of Troy”. Caerdroia (“City of Troy”) is the Welsh name for Troy and in medieval times a Caerdroia was a turf maze. Several similar turf mazes in Scandinavia have names such as Trojaborg, Trojaburg, Trojborg, Tröborg and Trojienborg, which can all be translated as “City of Troy”.

It follows that the mythological Troy is closely connected to the prehistoric labyrinth/burial mound/realm of death.

Comparison between the representation of a Troy Town and a typical burial mound seen from above:
trojeborg_nordisk_familjeboknewgrangeplan1

Therefoe the Iliad describes the entry in the burial mound/realm of death (i.e. Troy), and the Achaeans fail to breach the walls of the city until they hide themselves inside the Trojan Horse. The horse is a chthonic animal and the dead were often buried with their best horse: a horse would surely gained access inside the grave (i.e. Troy). So the Achaens can pass through the gates of Troy only if “accompanied” by the Trojan Horse (equivalently to the Argonauts that could reach Colchis only by means of the ship Argo, that in terms of symbolic function is identical to the Trojan Horse), similarly to Odin that can enter in Hel only if “accompanied” by Sleipnir, his steed. The ritual explained through these myths is the one of the child that enters the prehistoric cave to accomplish the initiation ritual, and walks inside it “accompanied” – among other animals – by the horses portrayed in the cave paintings.

Prehistoric cave paintings portraying horses:
cd974f75639f73008620a5671be23309
chinese-horse

In the Iliad, the city of Troy represents the burial mound/cave in which took place the initiatory ritual of rebirth. Helen, Andromache and Hecuba are three aspects of the sorceress/priestess who welcomed the initiate in the deeper area of the burial mound, they are the three Moirai (“moira” means “phase”) who preside over destiny and should be seen – respectively as girl, wife and crone – as a tripartite manifestation of a unique figure, similarly to the waxing moon, full moon and waning moon: three aspects of the same entity. Together they symbolize the eternal cycles of death and rebirth that occur in all the powers of the Universe, as in heaven so on earth.

Helen of Troy:
helen_of_troy

In the poem the weapons and armor are an essential part of the idenitity of a hero, and the fact that in the poem is recurrent the act of taking possession of the weapons and armor of the defeated enemy to gain honour – especially when they belong to a strong, glorious and honourable enemy – should be compared to the initiated child that inherits the weapons (along with other objects) of his honourable ancestor, at the conclusion of the initiation/rebirth ritual inside the burial mound.

Under this point of view, the Achaens are the descendants/new generations while the Trojans are their ancestors.

At a certain point of the poem, Achilles reveals the prophecy that hangs over him:

“My mother, Thetis with silver feet, speaks to me about two destinies which lead me to death: if I remain here to fight around the walls of Troy, I will no longer return but eternal will be my glory; if instead I return home, in the fatherland, for me there will be no glory, but I will have long life, it will not reach me soon the destiny of death”.

-Achilles to Odisseus in the Iliad

The meaning of this sort of omen is this: if Achilles (as previously understood, the heroes of the mythologies should be seen, in certain cases, as children/young boys) will not go inside the burial mound/reign of the dead to face the initiation ritual, his current self will remain as it is, incomplete, formless and without a definite identity, until his natural death, and he will live without honour and glory, excluded from the cycle of rebirths inside the ancestry. If instead Achilles will face the initiation ritual, then his current self will die soon after (when he enters the burial mound, since only the dead can access it), only to be reborn later as one of his ancestors (through the emergence of the memory of the blood, i.e. the memory of his previous lives), in this way obtaining the eternal honour and glory of the ancestry.

The Trojan War lasts nine years and ends during the tenth: nine months of pregnancy and finally the birth (i.e. rebirth/reincarnation at the end of the initiation ritual)…

The triumph of Achilles after defeating Hector:
triumphant_achilles_in_achilleion_levelled

***

Perseus is one of the greatest Greek heroes, famous for having beheaded the Gorgon Medusa: to accomplish this feat he first sought out the three Graeae, old sisters who shared only one eye and one tooth among them, lived in a cave from which neither the Sun nor the Moon could be seen (i.e. the burial mound) and were described as “virgins similar to swans” (i.e. dressed in white).

The Graeae and the Moirai of the Greeks are equivalent figures, as well as the Parcae of the Romans and the Norns of the Nordics: they are the Sorceresses who welcomed, inside the burial mound, the candidate to the initiation, and are all groups of three woman who preside over destiny, in the sense that they decide what will be, on the metaphysical plane, the destiny of an individual.

strudwick_-_a_golden_thread

They are related with the color white and therefore with the swan: in addition to what we have already learned, in this context, about the Graeae, we know that the Moirai are described as “dressed in white”, while the Norns live near Urðarbrunnr (“Well [i.e. the burial mound] of Urðr”, i.e. “Well of Destiny”), where they establish the fate of men; near this well live two swans from which descended the race of birds who bear this name. The Sirens of the Greek mythology are another group of three women with the same characteristics: they are Parthenope (“the virgin”), Leucosia (“the white”) and Ligeia (“the singing”). Again in the Norse mythology we find the valkyries (“the ones who chose the fallen”) Svanhvit (“white as a swan”), who offers a sword to Ragnarr and urges him to accomplish great deeds, and Alvitr (“omniscient”), her sister, which spin the linen after having laid their “shape of swan”; another relevant valkyrie in this context is Alruna (from Proto Germanic *aliruna, composed by runa [“secret”] and the prefix -ali): omniscience and runes (i.e. secret metaphysical knowledge), spinning and the color white are always specific attributes of these figures that we find in the European mythologies. The color white was related with the dead, because they were buried with white clothes, their dead bodies became quickly very pale, and they were purified by death (white being also the color of purity and purification): to get access and remain inside the burial mound the Graeae/Moirai/Parcae/Norns had to be dressed in white, as well as the dead and to be symbolically dead. The swan was seen as a chtonic and psychopomp animal, because it is completely white and lives in the waters (purifying and regenerator element that symbolizes the amniotic fluid), at times indicated in the European mythologies as portals or passages to reach the realm of death, and it is also a migratory bird, the migration being a periodic and regular movement linked to the alternation of the seasons and associated with the cycles of death and rebirth.

17jv8c0c0f649jpg

Now let’s go back to Perseus: he steals the eye of the Graeae and, in exchange for it, forces them to reveal the way to kill Medusa and thus the whereabouts of the objects needed for that purpose: the winged sandals (because Perseus is – exactly like Hermes – the divine child/bee who enters the burial mound/beehive), the helm of invisibility (another object that allows access to the burial mound, since invisibility is synonymous with death), the harpe sword, the mirrored shield and the knapsack to safely contain Medusa’s head (i.e. the valuables with which was buried the honourable ancestor).

7xjwrnm

We find a similar situation in the Norse mythology, when Odinn is forced to leave one of his eyes as a pledge in Mímisbrunnr (“well [a symbol of the burial mound] of memory”), in exchange for the possibility to drink the sacred water in it contained. We can better understand these mythological episodes when we know that the candidates for the initiation could access to the relam of death (the burial mound) exclusively if they brought with them the body of a dead, because only the dead had the right to enter that sacred place; the children had to possess and show a mistletoe (an evergreen plant, thus symbol of immortality) the dead Sun (i.e. Apollo/Baldr) at the time of the cold season: the gates opened…

The eye of Odinn and the eye of the Graeae stolen by Perseus hide precisely this symbolism, because the Sun is the eye of the Sky (Homer describes the Sun as “the all-seeing eye of Zeus”, in the Egyptian mythology the Sun is the eye of Ra, in the Hindu mythology Surya [“the supreme light”] is the eye of Varuna, in the Persian mythology the Sun is the eye of Ahura Mazda, in the Japanese mythology Amaterasu – the goddess of the Sun – is born from the eye of Izanagi, the Sun is the eye of the Indo-Iranian god Mitra). Both Odinn and Perseus use the mistletoe bough to obtain a metaphysical wisdom through the remembrance of their previous lives: one by means of the vision of the valuables he possessed in a previous life, the other by means of the sacred liquid of memory.

how-odin-lost-his-eye

Finally, Perseus finds and beheads Medusa, avoiding her gaze that turned people to stone, by looking at her reflection on the mirrored shield. Medusa’s head, with snakes instead of hairs and whose eyes had the power to petrify every living creature (an equivalent figure is the Basilisk, a medieval legendary snake with the ability to petrify what meets its gaze), symbolizes the placenta, which calcify after a certain time, causing the death and calcification of the child, who literally becomes stone if he stays too long in the womb.

Medusa’s head and the placenta:
medusa-caravaggioplacenta-cake-3

The beheading of Medusa symbolizes the sharp and violent severing of the bond between the reborn divine child and the maternal phase of existence, i.e. the severing of the placenta. At that point the initiate must get out as soon as possible from the burial mound (the womb of the earth), without looking back, fatal action that would compromise the entire metaphysical and initiatory process!

“Perseus with the head of Medusa”, masterpiece of Benvenuto Cellini:
xsrin_393-pagespeed-ic-bglvoneujp

Part 1: Some Cases of Burial Mounds (Part 1 of 3)
Part 2: Some Cases of Burial Mounds (Part 2 of 3)

Words of Wisdom #58 & #59

“It is difficult to fight against desire: what it wants, in fact, it buys it by paying with the soul”.

-Heraclitus

“Discipline is a limit and a condition of our liberty, in order to conform both to a precise ethics of life and the will of a leader”.

-Corneliu Z. Codreanu

Live always your life as if a certain person that you have in high esteem is watching you: in this way you’ll become virtuous and you’ll be able to tame the beast of degeneration!

michelangelo-raffigurato-come-eraclito-2corneliu-zelea-codreanu-si-vacarestenii

Le Besoin d’Impossible

The first book published by Marie Cachet, Le Besoin d’Impossible, is a multiform work in its implications, but despite this it can be defined as a whole as a purely philosophical work. In this article I will not write a typical review, I plan instead to outline and expose the issues that have mostly caught my attention – to put it in the most modest way – during the study of the book (yes, it requires to be studied and not merely read…).

***

Let’s start from an assumption that, although treated and deepened by the author in another context, is essential for a thorough understanding of the work that concerns us now: the modern European man – biologically speaking – is a slightly hybridized Neanderthal man (actually, every modern human being is a more or less hybridized creature, but since I am a European I will refer, when necessary, only to the European species). However, what has this to do with questions of philosophical nature? According to Marie Cachet one of the consequences of this hybridization, even after its stabilization, was the birth of a metaphysical vertigo/despair, a disharmony of the mind (here is to be found, perhaps, the cause of the birth of consciousness?) which manifested itself simultaneously with the dramatic shift to a temporal (and thus finite) perception of the Universe. A real “fall” that took us away from the possibility of fathom and living the concepts of eternity (intended as the atemporal point that we call instant) and infinity (intended as spatial infinity).

At that point, however, our ancestors (as well as us today) tried instinctively, unconsciously and obsessively to compensate this metaphysical despair and not get overwhelmed by the “terror of time”: an explosion of human dynamism, individual and collective, led progressively to the birth and development of civilizations, arts, sciences, spirituality, religions and philosophies, all attempts to recreate the lost harmony of the mind and extend one’s personality beyond the boundaries of the biological duration of the existence, in an attempt to forge a sort of simulated eternity (the need for the impossible, as suggested by the title of the book).

Examples of materialization of the collective genetic memory of a people, in an attempt to be remembered in time:
partenoneinterno-pantheon-roma

Examples of materialization of the genetic memory of an individual, the sculptor, in an attempt to be remembered in time:
cellinidiana-statue_hermsdorf_lohsa_2

Therefore, according to Marie Cachet, every external creation as well as all forms of teaching are the manifestation of a deep necessity of the human beings, namely the selfish need to go beyond the yoke of time, beyond the finitude, so as to preserve themselves in time, through other people, symbolic containers of our self, potential reincarnations of our self. Artistic creations and teachings are therefore a means to conquer eternity and to defeat the illusion of a finite time. We project our self in the future, through a real or imaginary reincarnation (see the prehistoric ritual of reincarnation described in detail by Madame Cachet in another context), which in turn will transmit in the future the essence of our self, in an eventual endless chain.

padre-e-figlio-tramonto

An essential distinction that emerges during the reading is that between the individuals conscious of their metaphysical despair (active and subjective individuals) and the vast majority of those who are not aware of it (passive and objective individuals) and unconsciously suffer the consequences of this disharmony. The religions (especially the organized religions) and the spiritualities that give us dogmatic and established metaphysical responses, the daily repetitiveness, the social conventions and all the entertainment we create in our societies are, although we do not realize it, tools that distract us and allow us to flee from the metaphysical anguish inherent in us, from the sacred terror that we experience in front of the mystery of the universe and of life. Only by getting rid of all this – especially of what gives us metaphysical answers – and through boredom, certain men will fall into the metaphysical despair and will find their authentic self (through the manifestation of the memories of our previous lives, engraved and latent in our blood), their true essence, undergoing a sort of “awakening”: achieved this superior spiritual and mental state, a deep impulse will force them to find their subjective responses to the fundamental dilemmas of the world and of life.

What about you? You dare to look face to face the metaphysical abyss?

universoosservabile-630x360

***

As I have previously explained, these are just some of the issues discussed in this book (a unique work of its kind), the ones that most involved me: ultimately, I urge you to read it and give shape to your personal opinion.

Evola: about Miscegenation and the tripartite division of the Race in Body, Soul and Spirit

“While in a “thoroughbred” horse or cat the biological element constitutes the central one, and therefore can legitimately be narrowed down to it every racial consideration, this is certainly not the case for man or, at least, for every man worthy of this name, which is yes a biological and antropological reality, but connected to elements and forces and laws of different character, superbiological, just as real as the first and whose influence on the first can often be decisive”.

“The distinction in the human being of three different principles, of body, soul and spirit, is fundamental for the traditional view. Starting from such view, it must be recognized that the inequality of mankind is not only physical, biological or anthropological, but also psychical and spiritual. Men are different not only in body, but also in soul and spirit. In accordance with this, the doctrine of race must be articulated in three degrees. The racial problem must therefore be placed for each of the three elements. The racist consideration of man as body, as a purely natural and biological entity, is the task that belongs to the doctrine of the race of first degree. Follows the consideration of man since he is soul, that is the study of the race of the soul. As crowning, we’ll have a doctrine of the race of third degree, that is the racial study of man since he is not only body and soul, but, in addition, spirit”.

“The racism of first degree, having to consider the body’s data and, in general, that aspect of the human being, according to which he obeys to purely natural, biological, anthropological, constitutional laws and determinisms, can legitimately assume the research methods used, in general, by the natural sciences. In front of the environment the race has a certain amplitude of reaction, the type can mutate, but in a transitory and contingent manner, the same way as an elastic body that resumes its shape, once the action of the force that deformed it has ceased. As a determinant, essential, decisive and permanent, is however always considered this internal racial hereditary element, always ready to reassert itself”.

“As racism of second degree one must consider a theory of the race of the soul and a typology of the soul of the races. Such a racism has to detect the elements, in their way primary and irreducible, that act from the inside, causing groups of individuals to manifest a constant way of being or “style” in terms of acting, thinking, feeling. Here we arrive at a new concept of the racial purity of a given type: it is no longer the case to see if, like in the racism of first degree, a given individual presents that given group of physical characteristics or, also, generically characterological, which make it conform to the erditary type, but it is about establishing if the race of the body brought by a given individual is the appropriate expression, in compliance, of his race of the soul, and vice versa. If this occurs, the type is pure also according to the survey of second degree”.

“Keep in mind, for example the phenomenon of the comprehension. In reality there are too many cases of people, that are exactly of the same race of the body, of the same stock, sometimes even – as brothers or fathers and children – of the same blood in the most real sense, but nevertheless they fail to understand each other. A frontier separates their souls, their way of feeling and seeing is different and against this the common race of the body and the common blood can do nothing. There is a possibility of comprehension, and therefore of true solidarity, of profound unity, only where exists a common “race of the soul”. Come into question, here, subtle elements, of an instinctive sensibility. While for long years nothing has been suspected, in a given circumstance can happen that a given person with his way of acting gives us the net feeling that it “is of another race” and, then, there will be nothing more to do with it, there may be, with it, relations of various nature, but always at an intimate restraint, at an intimate distance”.

“Let us now go and say something about the racist research of third degree, having for its object, as known, the races of the spirit. This is, indeed, the research of the race according to its ultimate root, wherever we talk about normal civilizations and of superior human strains; root, already communicating with super-personal, super-ethnic metaphysical forces. For such a research, the specific way to conceive both the sacred and the supernatural, rather than the relationship of man with respect to it, the vision of life in the highest sense, furthermore, the whole world of symbols and myths, constitute a matter so positive and objective, as for the racism of first degree are the facial indices and the cranial structures”.

“It is evident that, kept in mind all this, the problem itself of the hybrids and of their effects must be studied much more in-depth compared to what is usually done, as long as the doctrinal field is maintained, without looking for, instead, suitable suggestions for their practical utility. In general, the perniciousness of the hybrids should certainly be acknowledged, and it is of course all the more evident, as much as the racial elements are of the two parts are definitely heterogeneous. Then we stress, that the deleterious character of the hybrids is not revealed much in the determinations of degenerate and deformed human types compared to their original race of the body, but especially in the realization of cases, in which interior and exterior no longer match, in which the race of the body can be in contrast with the that of the soul and, this, in turn, can contradict the race of the spirit, or vice versa, thus giving rise to dilacerated beings, semi-hysterical, to beings that, in themselves, are no longer, so to speak, no one at home. And when no inner resistance, no awakening of the primordial forming force occurs and, instead, to the previous hybridizations new ones are added, the result is the creation of a true ethnic amalgam, of a disarticulated mass, shapeless, semi-leveled, for which starts seriously to become true the immortal principle of the universal equality”.

Note: you can interchange the term “soul”, in reality quite ambiguous, with any of these terms: “mind”, “character”, “personality”.

04bis

Related posts: Evola: about Work, Economy and LifeEvola: about Christianism, Chivalry and the Nordic-Germanic vision of LifeEvola: about Initiation, Immortality, Death and RebirthLost Wisdom