The verses quoted in this second part describe the existential condition of the āsura human being, the doctrine of the three guṇa and the hierarchy of the Hindu caste system.
4.”Hypocrisy, arrogance, vanity, anger, hardness and ignorance: all this, Pārtha, belongs to he who was born for an āsura condition”.
6.”In this world there are two categories of beings: daiva and āsura, the daiva one has been extensively described; now listen from me, Pārtha, the āsura one”.
8.”They state that the universe is without truth, without fundament [or moral basis], without a Lord, devoid of regular causal connection and originated from passion”.
9.”Firm in their way of seeing [things], these unhappy, devoid of understanding and full of violence, come into the world to destroy it”.
10.”Abandoning themselves to an insatiable passionate desire, full of pride, hypocrisy and arrogance, professing, because of ignorance, bad inclinations, they act with impure motive”.
11.”Dedicated to endeavors without measure that end [only] with death, they pursue the aim in the satisfaction of passions, convinced that this is everything”.
12.”Kept in slavery by the thousand bonds of desire, dedicated to pleasure and anger, they seek wealth with unfair means, in order to satisfy their lusts“.
13.”<<Today I obtained this, this other I will have tomorrow; this good belongs to me and also this other, in good time, will be mine;”.
14.”I killed this enemy and more I will kill; I am the ruler, I enjoy pleasure, I am perfect, powerful, happy,”.
15.”I am rich, I am of noble birth, who else can be similar to me? I will make offerings, gifts and I will rejoice>>, thus [speak] those who are deluded by ignorance”.
16.”Agitated by the most disparate thoughts, enveloped in the net of illusion, committed to satisfy their desires, they fall in an unclean abyss”.
21.”Triple is the door of the abyss in which the identified soul finds ruin: passion, anger and possession. Therefore man should abandon these three qualities”.
The verses 4./6./8./9./10./11./12./13./14./15./16./21. describe the distinctive features, worldview and existential condition of the āsura human beings, which judge the divine harmonic structure that can be seen in the cosmic becoming as the mere result of a fortuitous coincidence of universal proportions; these men place themselves exclusively in an anthropocentric and selfish perspective, and consequently have no scruples in relation to the unbridled exploitation of the living reality that surrounds them, in order to satisfy their insane subhuman lusts: this is the only purpose, meaning and destiny of their existences.
30.”Pārtha, that intellect that knows the action and non-action, what must be done and what must not be done, what it must and must not fear, what binds and what frees, is said [pervaded] of sattva”.
31.”That intellect, Pārtha, that erroneously intends the just and the unjust, what must or must not be accomplished, is said [pervaded] of rajas”.
32.”That intellect, Pārtha, that, enveloped by darkness, intends the unjust as just and mistakes what must be done for what must not be done and vice versa, is said [pervaded] of tamas”.
41.”The duties of the brāhmaṇas, kṣatriyas, vaiśyas and śūdras, Paramtāpa, are distinct according to the qualities (guṇa) originated by their very nature”.
The verses 30./31./32./41. distinguish the innate qualities related to the three guṇa (“constitutive quality”, “attribute”), respectively called sattva, rajas and tamas; the sattva guṇa belongs to che caste of the brāhmaṇas and is characterized by knowledge, harmony, equilibrium, order and light; the guṇa rajas belongs to both the caste of the kṣatriyas and that of the vaiśyas and is characterized by energy, vitality, action, will and passion; the guṇa tamas belongs to the caste of the śūdras and is characterized by ignorance, disharmony, disequilibrium, disorder and darkness: each guṇa implies in particular a more or less deep innate intuition concerning the meaning of the universal reality that surrounds us and the place that our existence and our actions occupy in it.
42.”Tranquility, self-control, austerity, tolerance and rectitude, wisdom (jñāna), distinctive knowledge (vijñāṇa), compassion are qualities inherent to the action of the brāhmaṇa and stem from his very nature”.
43.”Heroism, vigour, firmness, ability and not flee in battle, generosity, leadership skills are attributes inherent to the action of the kṣatriya and originate from the essential characteristics that are proper to him”.
44.”Agriculture, caring for livestock, commerce are the qualities inherent to the action of the vaiśya and originate from his very nature. The work of the śūdra, inherent to his nature, consists in [providing] services”.
45.”Whoever finds himself to have pleasure in his duty achieves perfection. Listen, then, in what way he who fulfills his duty achieves perfection”.
47.”It is better one’s duty [inherent to one’s own nature], however imperfectly accomplished, rather than the duty of someone else well practised. He who fulfills the duty inherent to his very nature makes no mistake”.
The verses 42./43./44./45./47. describe the distinguishing characteristics of the four castes that form the traditional Hindu society, consisting of a top-down order based on a true hierarchy (“rule of the sacred”): the first caste is that of the brāhmaṇa, composed by the spiritual leaders; the second caste is that of the kṣatriya, composed by the warrior aristocracy; the third caste is that of the vaiśya, composed by the landowners; the fourth caste is that of the śūdra, composed by the slaves. The belonging of an individual to a specific caste, only within which he could bring harmoniously to completion his existence, was determined by means of the identification of his specific innate nature, corresponding to a particular way of being and acting. The three higher castes were referred with the term “ārya” (from Sanskrit “ar” with the meaning of “noble, superior”), quality that on the one hand was passed down at birth by means of a noble blood, on the other necessitated to be actually achieved through the initiation that led to the formation of the “dvija” (“twice born”).
“The castes, before defining social groups, define functions, and typical ways of being and acting. The correspondence of the fundamental natural possibilities of the individual to one or the other of such functions determined his belonging to the corresponding caste: therefore in the duties proper to his caste, in what this one was traditionally called, he could recognise the normal execution of his very own nature”.
“It can therefore be said that not the birth determines the nature, but that the nature determines the birth; more in particular, that one has a given spirit because he is born in a given caste, but at the same time one is born in a given caste because – transcendentally – he already has a given spirit. Hence the inequality of castes, far from being artificial, unjust and arbitrary, was nothing but the reflection and institution of a deeper and intimate preexisting inequality”.
Krishna reveals his “vishvarupa” (“universal form”) to Arjuna: